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Oxidative stress to the cornea, changes in corneal optical properties, and advances in treatment of corneal oxidative injuries.

Cejka C, Cejkova J - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries.The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed.Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Eye Histochemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 14220 Prague 4, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT
Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress) leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Averaged absorption spectra of rabbit corneas, expressed as the transmittance T = T(λ) or absorbance A = A(λ), after alkali injury of the rabbit eye with 0.1 M or 0.5 M NaOH (10 drops during 1 min and then the eye was rinsed with tap water). The spectrum of unirradiated corneas (healthy eyes; mean from 6 measurements) is also included for comparison. Note that, for wavelengths shorter than about 300 nm, the spectra show the instrumental stray light error rather than the corneal optical properties (absorption spectra of rabbit corneas were obtained using a spectrophotometrical method described by Čejka et al. [22]). The corneal light absorption increased along with the increase in the concentration of the alkali. Also, the changes in corneal transparency proceeded in parallel with increasing concentrations of alkali.
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fig2: Averaged absorption spectra of rabbit corneas, expressed as the transmittance T = T(λ) or absorbance A = A(λ), after alkali injury of the rabbit eye with 0.1 M or 0.5 M NaOH (10 drops during 1 min and then the eye was rinsed with tap water). The spectrum of unirradiated corneas (healthy eyes; mean from 6 measurements) is also included for comparison. Note that, for wavelengths shorter than about 300 nm, the spectra show the instrumental stray light error rather than the corneal optical properties (absorption spectra of rabbit corneas were obtained using a spectrophotometrical method described by Čejka et al. [22]). The corneal light absorption increased along with the increase in the concentration of the alkali. Also, the changes in corneal transparency proceeded in parallel with increasing concentrations of alkali.

Mentions: It is generally known from clinical practice that chemical injuries of the cornea (particularly with alkalis) are dangerous to the eye and threaten vision. Čejka et al. [57] described that already low concentrations of alkali changed corneal hydration and corneal light absorption. These authors found that after dropping 0.1 M NaOH onto the surface of the healthy rabbit cornea, increased corneal hydration, as measured by a pachymeter according to the central corneal thickness, appeared 24 h after the first application and the cornea became opaque. The extent of corneal hydration together with changes in corneal light absorption increased along with the daily application of alkali. On the 3rd day of the experiment significantly increased corneal hydration and increased corneal light absorption were found (compared to untreated healthy corneas). In contrast, after the application of the same concentration of diluted acid (0.1 M HCl), these changes, even if apparent, did not reach significance. In Figure 2 is shown the dependence of changes in corneal light absorption and corneal transparency on the severity of corneal alkali injury.


Oxidative stress to the cornea, changes in corneal optical properties, and advances in treatment of corneal oxidative injuries.

Cejka C, Cejkova J - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Averaged absorption spectra of rabbit corneas, expressed as the transmittance T = T(λ) or absorbance A = A(λ), after alkali injury of the rabbit eye with 0.1 M or 0.5 M NaOH (10 drops during 1 min and then the eye was rinsed with tap water). The spectrum of unirradiated corneas (healthy eyes; mean from 6 measurements) is also included for comparison. Note that, for wavelengths shorter than about 300 nm, the spectra show the instrumental stray light error rather than the corneal optical properties (absorption spectra of rabbit corneas were obtained using a spectrophotometrical method described by Čejka et al. [22]). The corneal light absorption increased along with the increase in the concentration of the alkali. Also, the changes in corneal transparency proceeded in parallel with increasing concentrations of alkali.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4377462&req=5

fig2: Averaged absorption spectra of rabbit corneas, expressed as the transmittance T = T(λ) or absorbance A = A(λ), after alkali injury of the rabbit eye with 0.1 M or 0.5 M NaOH (10 drops during 1 min and then the eye was rinsed with tap water). The spectrum of unirradiated corneas (healthy eyes; mean from 6 measurements) is also included for comparison. Note that, for wavelengths shorter than about 300 nm, the spectra show the instrumental stray light error rather than the corneal optical properties (absorption spectra of rabbit corneas were obtained using a spectrophotometrical method described by Čejka et al. [22]). The corneal light absorption increased along with the increase in the concentration of the alkali. Also, the changes in corneal transparency proceeded in parallel with increasing concentrations of alkali.
Mentions: It is generally known from clinical practice that chemical injuries of the cornea (particularly with alkalis) are dangerous to the eye and threaten vision. Čejka et al. [57] described that already low concentrations of alkali changed corneal hydration and corneal light absorption. These authors found that after dropping 0.1 M NaOH onto the surface of the healthy rabbit cornea, increased corneal hydration, as measured by a pachymeter according to the central corneal thickness, appeared 24 h after the first application and the cornea became opaque. The extent of corneal hydration together with changes in corneal light absorption increased along with the daily application of alkali. On the 3rd day of the experiment significantly increased corneal hydration and increased corneal light absorption were found (compared to untreated healthy corneas). In contrast, after the application of the same concentration of diluted acid (0.1 M HCl), these changes, even if apparent, did not reach significance. In Figure 2 is shown the dependence of changes in corneal light absorption and corneal transparency on the severity of corneal alkali injury.

Bottom Line: Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries.The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed.Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Eye Histochemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 14220 Prague 4, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT
Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress) leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus