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Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

Leite Ade S, Dantas AF, Oliveira GL, Gomes Júnior AL, de Lima SG, Citó AM, de Freitas RM, Melo-Cavalcante AA, Dantas Lopes JA - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids.However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa.Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Pesquisa em Genética Toxicológica de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil ; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia (RENORBIO) da Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The chromatographic profile of tCNSL obtained by GC-MS analysis. 6: monounsaturated cardanol, 7: diunsaturated cardanol, 8: cardanol, and 9: unidentified.
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fig2: The chromatographic profile of tCNSL obtained by GC-MS analysis. 6: monounsaturated cardanol, 7: diunsaturated cardanol, 8: cardanol, and 9: unidentified.

Mentions: The main phenolic compounds present in both types of CNSL were identified by GC-MS analysis. The iCNSL contained metilcardol (2.90%), monounsaturated anacardic acid (82.90%), diunsaturated anacardic acid (8.0%), anacardic acid (3.60%), and 2.60% unidentified compounds (Table 1 and Figure 1). The tCNSL exhibited 79.40% monounsaturated cardanol, 8.67% diunsaturated cardanol, 3.23% cardanol, and 8.70% unidentified compounds (Table 1 and Figure 2). These results indicate that the main phenolic compound of iCNSL is monounsaturated anacardic acid and monounsaturated cardanol for the tCNSL.


Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

Leite Ade S, Dantas AF, Oliveira GL, Gomes Júnior AL, de Lima SG, Citó AM, de Freitas RM, Melo-Cavalcante AA, Dantas Lopes JA - Biomed Res Int (2015)

The chromatographic profile of tCNSL obtained by GC-MS analysis. 6: monounsaturated cardanol, 7: diunsaturated cardanol, 8: cardanol, and 9: unidentified.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4377390&req=5

fig2: The chromatographic profile of tCNSL obtained by GC-MS analysis. 6: monounsaturated cardanol, 7: diunsaturated cardanol, 8: cardanol, and 9: unidentified.
Mentions: The main phenolic compounds present in both types of CNSL were identified by GC-MS analysis. The iCNSL contained metilcardol (2.90%), monounsaturated anacardic acid (82.90%), diunsaturated anacardic acid (8.0%), anacardic acid (3.60%), and 2.60% unidentified compounds (Table 1 and Figure 1). The tCNSL exhibited 79.40% monounsaturated cardanol, 8.67% diunsaturated cardanol, 3.23% cardanol, and 8.70% unidentified compounds (Table 1 and Figure 2). These results indicate that the main phenolic compound of iCNSL is monounsaturated anacardic acid and monounsaturated cardanol for the tCNSL.

Bottom Line: This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids.However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa.Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Pesquisa em Genética Toxicológica de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil ; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia (RENORBIO) da Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus