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Population structure of the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa among street trees in Washington D.C.

Harris JL, Balci Y - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Bacterial leaf scorch, associated with the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is a widely established and problematic disease of landscape ornamentals in Washington D.C.Strains found for asymptomatic foliage were the same as strains from the symptomatic foliage on individual trees.Cross transmission of the strains was not observed at sites with multiple species of infected trees within an approx. 25 m radius of one another.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Bacterial leaf scorch, associated with the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is a widely established and problematic disease of landscape ornamentals in Washington D.C. A multi-locus sequence typing analysis was performed using 10 housekeeping loci for X. fastidiosa strains in order to better understand the epidemiology of leaf scorch disease in this municipal environment. Samples were collected from 7 different tree species located throughout the District of Columbia, consisting of 101 samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic foliage from 84 different trees. Five strains of the bacteria were identified. Consistent with prior data, these strains were host specific, with only one strain associated with members of the red oak family, one strain associated with American elm, one strain associated with American sycamore, and two strains associated with mulberry. Strains found for asymptomatic foliage were the same as strains from the symptomatic foliage on individual trees. Cross transmission of the strains was not observed at sites with multiple species of infected trees within an approx. 25 m radius of one another. X. fastidiosa strain specificity observed for each genus of tree suggests a highly specialized host-pathogen relationship.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distance tree of sequence types found infecting urban trees.A distance tree was constructed with 7,416 bp of concatenated sequence data for each X. fastidiosa sequence type. The two mulberry strains form a clade that represents the newly described subspecies morus, while amenity tree strains nest closely within the subsp. multiplex clade. Percentages represent bootstrap support from the re-sampling distribution. () Values in parenthesis represent the ten locus sequence types in this analysis.
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pone.0121297.g001: Distance tree of sequence types found infecting urban trees.A distance tree was constructed with 7,416 bp of concatenated sequence data for each X. fastidiosa sequence type. The two mulberry strains form a clade that represents the newly described subspecies morus, while amenity tree strains nest closely within the subsp. multiplex clade. Percentages represent bootstrap support from the re-sampling distribution. () Values in parenthesis represent the ten locus sequence types in this analysis.

Mentions: Once the sequence types were identified, a distance tree was created using concatenated sequences of all ten loci totaling 7,416 bp for each ST10. Two distinct clusters were formed in the distance tree: the mulberry strains form a monophyletic group with the X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa reference strains Temecula1, GB92.1, and M23, while the amenity tree STs10 were monophyletic with the subsp. multiplex strain M12 (Fig 1). The two clonal complexes in our analysis, defined as members within a complex sharing at least seven of ten loci, were from the mulberry strains and the amenity tree strains. The two strains from mulberry that comprise one of these complexes differed from each other by a single SNP at the nuoN locus (S4 Table). Within the amenity tree complex, the sycamore ST10-2 and oak ST10-1 differed from each other by a single SNP at the gltT locus. Elm dominant ST10-3 was the outlier in this complex, only sharing 7 loci with oak ST10-1 and sycamore ST10-2. The elm ST10-3 alleles for gltT and cysG were identical to the alleles for the mulberry ST10-4 and ST10-5 and different from the oak ST10-1 and sycamore ST10-2 strains.


Population structure of the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa among street trees in Washington D.C.

Harris JL, Balci Y - PLoS ONE (2015)

Distance tree of sequence types found infecting urban trees.A distance tree was constructed with 7,416 bp of concatenated sequence data for each X. fastidiosa sequence type. The two mulberry strains form a clade that represents the newly described subspecies morus, while amenity tree strains nest closely within the subsp. multiplex clade. Percentages represent bootstrap support from the re-sampling distribution. () Values in parenthesis represent the ten locus sequence types in this analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4376734&req=5

pone.0121297.g001: Distance tree of sequence types found infecting urban trees.A distance tree was constructed with 7,416 bp of concatenated sequence data for each X. fastidiosa sequence type. The two mulberry strains form a clade that represents the newly described subspecies morus, while amenity tree strains nest closely within the subsp. multiplex clade. Percentages represent bootstrap support from the re-sampling distribution. () Values in parenthesis represent the ten locus sequence types in this analysis.
Mentions: Once the sequence types were identified, a distance tree was created using concatenated sequences of all ten loci totaling 7,416 bp for each ST10. Two distinct clusters were formed in the distance tree: the mulberry strains form a monophyletic group with the X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa reference strains Temecula1, GB92.1, and M23, while the amenity tree STs10 were monophyletic with the subsp. multiplex strain M12 (Fig 1). The two clonal complexes in our analysis, defined as members within a complex sharing at least seven of ten loci, were from the mulberry strains and the amenity tree strains. The two strains from mulberry that comprise one of these complexes differed from each other by a single SNP at the nuoN locus (S4 Table). Within the amenity tree complex, the sycamore ST10-2 and oak ST10-1 differed from each other by a single SNP at the gltT locus. Elm dominant ST10-3 was the outlier in this complex, only sharing 7 loci with oak ST10-1 and sycamore ST10-2. The elm ST10-3 alleles for gltT and cysG were identical to the alleles for the mulberry ST10-4 and ST10-5 and different from the oak ST10-1 and sycamore ST10-2 strains.

Bottom Line: Bacterial leaf scorch, associated with the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is a widely established and problematic disease of landscape ornamentals in Washington D.C.Strains found for asymptomatic foliage were the same as strains from the symptomatic foliage on individual trees.Cross transmission of the strains was not observed at sites with multiple species of infected trees within an approx. 25 m radius of one another.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Bacterial leaf scorch, associated with the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is a widely established and problematic disease of landscape ornamentals in Washington D.C. A multi-locus sequence typing analysis was performed using 10 housekeeping loci for X. fastidiosa strains in order to better understand the epidemiology of leaf scorch disease in this municipal environment. Samples were collected from 7 different tree species located throughout the District of Columbia, consisting of 101 samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic foliage from 84 different trees. Five strains of the bacteria were identified. Consistent with prior data, these strains were host specific, with only one strain associated with members of the red oak family, one strain associated with American elm, one strain associated with American sycamore, and two strains associated with mulberry. Strains found for asymptomatic foliage were the same as strains from the symptomatic foliage on individual trees. Cross transmission of the strains was not observed at sites with multiple species of infected trees within an approx. 25 m radius of one another. X. fastidiosa strain specificity observed for each genus of tree suggests a highly specialized host-pathogen relationship.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus