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Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

Martemyanov VV, Pavlushin SV, Dubovskiy IM, Belousova IA, Yushkova YV, Morosov SV, Chernyak EI, Glupov VV - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content.For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs.Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Insect Pathology, Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, 630091, Frunze str. 11, Novosibirsk, Russia.

ABSTRACT
Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of Betula pendula leaf surface ethanol extract on Lymantria dispar fitness.Weight (mean ±SE) (a) and survival rate (mean ±SE) (b) of Lymantria dispar larvae reared on artificial diet with different concentrations of leaf surface extract is presented. The data were pair-wise compared by post hoc Fisher LSD procedure. The letters above the bar mean the significant differences (at P<0.05) to be compared with the bars abbreviated by the same letters within bar.
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pone.0121917.g005: Effect of Betula pendula leaf surface ethanol extract on Lymantria dispar fitness.Weight (mean ±SE) (a) and survival rate (mean ±SE) (b) of Lymantria dispar larvae reared on artificial diet with different concentrations of leaf surface extract is presented. The data were pair-wise compared by post hoc Fisher LSD procedure. The letters above the bar mean the significant differences (at P<0.05) to be compared with the bars abbreviated by the same letters within bar.

Mentions: Neither ethanol alone nor the extract added to the artificial diet at low concentration affected larval weight or the mortality rate. Meanwhile, the higher concentrations of ethanol extract (1.9% and 3.8%) led to a dose-dependent decrease of larvae weight (r = -0.992; P = 0.079) as well as survival rate (r = -0.999; P = 0.017) rate (Fig. 5a,b).


Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

Martemyanov VV, Pavlushin SV, Dubovskiy IM, Belousova IA, Yushkova YV, Morosov SV, Chernyak EI, Glupov VV - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effect of Betula pendula leaf surface ethanol extract on Lymantria dispar fitness.Weight (mean ±SE) (a) and survival rate (mean ±SE) (b) of Lymantria dispar larvae reared on artificial diet with different concentrations of leaf surface extract is presented. The data were pair-wise compared by post hoc Fisher LSD procedure. The letters above the bar mean the significant differences (at P<0.05) to be compared with the bars abbreviated by the same letters within bar.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4376524&req=5

pone.0121917.g005: Effect of Betula pendula leaf surface ethanol extract on Lymantria dispar fitness.Weight (mean ±SE) (a) and survival rate (mean ±SE) (b) of Lymantria dispar larvae reared on artificial diet with different concentrations of leaf surface extract is presented. The data were pair-wise compared by post hoc Fisher LSD procedure. The letters above the bar mean the significant differences (at P<0.05) to be compared with the bars abbreviated by the same letters within bar.
Mentions: Neither ethanol alone nor the extract added to the artificial diet at low concentration affected larval weight or the mortality rate. Meanwhile, the higher concentrations of ethanol extract (1.9% and 3.8%) led to a dose-dependent decrease of larvae weight (r = -0.992; P = 0.079) as well as survival rate (r = -0.999; P = 0.017) rate (Fig. 5a,b).

Bottom Line: We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content.For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs.Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Insect Pathology, Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, 630091, Frunze str. 11, Novosibirsk, Russia.

ABSTRACT
Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus