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Pacing strategy in male elite and age group 100 km ultra-marathoners.

Knechtle B, Rosemann T, Zingg MA, Stiefel M, Rüst CA - Open Access J Sports Med (2015)

Bottom Line: For age group athletes, running speed decreased in TS1-TS2 and TS2-TS3.Running speed showed the largest decrease in the age group 18-24 years.To summarize, the top ten athletes in each edition maintained their running speed in the last segment (TS3-Finish) although running speed decreased over the first two segments (TS1-TS2 and TS2-TS3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland ; Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Pacing strategy has been investigated in elite 100 km and elite 161 km (100 mile) ultra-marathoners, but not in age group ultra-marathoners. This study investigated changes in running speed over segments in male elite and age group 100 km ultra-marathoners with the assumption that running speed would decrease over segments with increasing age of the athlete. Running speed during segments in male elite and age group finishers for 5-year age groups (ie, 18-24 to 65-69 years) in the 100 km Lauf Biel in Switzerland was investigated during the 2000-2009 period. Average running speed over segment time station (TS) TS1-TS2 (56.1 km) was compared with running speed Start-TS1 (38 km) and Start-TS3 (76.7 km) and running speed TS2-TS3 was compared with running speed Start-Finish. For the top ten athletes in each edition, running speed decreased from 2000 to 2009 for TS1-TS2 and TS2-TS3 (P<0.0001) but not in TS3-Finish (P>0.05). During TS1-TS2, athletes were running at 98.0%±2.1% of the running speed of Start-TS1. In TS2-TS3, they were running at 94.6%±3.4% of the running speed of TS1-TS2. In TS3-Finish, they were running at 95.5%±3.8% of running speed in TS2-TS3. For age group athletes, running speed decreased in TS1-TS2 and TS2-TS3. In TS3-Finish, running speed remained unchanged with the exception of the age group 40-44 years for which running speed increased. Running speed showed the largest decrease in the age group 18-24 years. To summarize, the top ten athletes in each edition maintained their running speed in the last segment (TS3-Finish) although running speed decreased over the first two segments (TS1-TS2 and TS2-TS3). The best pacers were athletes in the age group 40-44 years, who were able to achieve negative pacing in the last segment (TS3-Finish) of the race. The negative pacing in the last segment (TS3-Finish) was likely due to environmental conditions, such as early dawn and the flat circuit in segment TS3-Finish of the race.

No MeSH data available.


Change in running speed for the top ten athletes in each edition over segments Start–TS1, TS1–TS2, TS2–TS3, and TS3–Finish, expressed as percent of running speed over segment Start–TS1 between 2000 and 2009 (A–J).Abbreviation: TS, time station.
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f3-oajsm-6-071: Change in running speed for the top ten athletes in each edition over segments Start–TS1, TS1–TS2, TS2–TS3, and TS3–Finish, expressed as percent of running speed over segment Start–TS1 between 2000 and 2009 (A–J).Abbreviation: TS, time station.

Mentions: Relative average running speed over segments for the top ten athletes in each edition decreased (r2=0.06, P=0.0116) across editions (Figure 1; Cohen’s d=0.96, effect size r=0.43). Figure 2 presents the changes in percent running speed between over segments for each edition from 2000 to 2009 for the annual top ten athletes. In 2002, 2006, 2007, and 2009, the top ten athletes in each edition showed no change in running speed over segment TS1–TS2. Over segment TS2–TS3, running speed decreased in all editions. Over segment TS3–Finish, running speed increased during 2000–2003, but decreased during 2004–2009. When the top ten athletes in each edition were pooled for the 10 years of 2000–2009 (Figure 3), running speed decreased over segment TS1–TS2 (P<0.0001; Cohen’s d=1.37, effect size r=0.56) and over segment TS2–TS3 (P<0.0001; Cohen’s d=1.21, effect size r=0.51). However, over segment TS3–Finish, no change in running speed occurred (P>0.05, Figure 4). Over segment TS1–TS2, the athletes were running at 98.0%±2.1% of their running speed for segment Start–TS1. Over segment T2–TS3, they were running at 94.6%±3.4% of their running speed for segment TS1–TS2. Over segment TS3–Finish, they were running at 95.5%±3.8% of their running speed over segment TS2–TS3.


Pacing strategy in male elite and age group 100 km ultra-marathoners.

Knechtle B, Rosemann T, Zingg MA, Stiefel M, Rüst CA - Open Access J Sports Med (2015)

Change in running speed for the top ten athletes in each edition over segments Start–TS1, TS1–TS2, TS2–TS3, and TS3–Finish, expressed as percent of running speed over segment Start–TS1 between 2000 and 2009 (A–J).Abbreviation: TS, time station.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4376307&req=5

f3-oajsm-6-071: Change in running speed for the top ten athletes in each edition over segments Start–TS1, TS1–TS2, TS2–TS3, and TS3–Finish, expressed as percent of running speed over segment Start–TS1 between 2000 and 2009 (A–J).Abbreviation: TS, time station.
Mentions: Relative average running speed over segments for the top ten athletes in each edition decreased (r2=0.06, P=0.0116) across editions (Figure 1; Cohen’s d=0.96, effect size r=0.43). Figure 2 presents the changes in percent running speed between over segments for each edition from 2000 to 2009 for the annual top ten athletes. In 2002, 2006, 2007, and 2009, the top ten athletes in each edition showed no change in running speed over segment TS1–TS2. Over segment TS2–TS3, running speed decreased in all editions. Over segment TS3–Finish, running speed increased during 2000–2003, but decreased during 2004–2009. When the top ten athletes in each edition were pooled for the 10 years of 2000–2009 (Figure 3), running speed decreased over segment TS1–TS2 (P<0.0001; Cohen’s d=1.37, effect size r=0.56) and over segment TS2–TS3 (P<0.0001; Cohen’s d=1.21, effect size r=0.51). However, over segment TS3–Finish, no change in running speed occurred (P>0.05, Figure 4). Over segment TS1–TS2, the athletes were running at 98.0%±2.1% of their running speed for segment Start–TS1. Over segment T2–TS3, they were running at 94.6%±3.4% of their running speed for segment TS1–TS2. Over segment TS3–Finish, they were running at 95.5%±3.8% of their running speed over segment TS2–TS3.

Bottom Line: For age group athletes, running speed decreased in TS1-TS2 and TS2-TS3.Running speed showed the largest decrease in the age group 18-24 years.To summarize, the top ten athletes in each edition maintained their running speed in the last segment (TS3-Finish) although running speed decreased over the first two segments (TS1-TS2 and TS2-TS3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland ; Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Pacing strategy has been investigated in elite 100 km and elite 161 km (100 mile) ultra-marathoners, but not in age group ultra-marathoners. This study investigated changes in running speed over segments in male elite and age group 100 km ultra-marathoners with the assumption that running speed would decrease over segments with increasing age of the athlete. Running speed during segments in male elite and age group finishers for 5-year age groups (ie, 18-24 to 65-69 years) in the 100 km Lauf Biel in Switzerland was investigated during the 2000-2009 period. Average running speed over segment time station (TS) TS1-TS2 (56.1 km) was compared with running speed Start-TS1 (38 km) and Start-TS3 (76.7 km) and running speed TS2-TS3 was compared with running speed Start-Finish. For the top ten athletes in each edition, running speed decreased from 2000 to 2009 for TS1-TS2 and TS2-TS3 (P<0.0001) but not in TS3-Finish (P>0.05). During TS1-TS2, athletes were running at 98.0%±2.1% of the running speed of Start-TS1. In TS2-TS3, they were running at 94.6%±3.4% of the running speed of TS1-TS2. In TS3-Finish, they were running at 95.5%±3.8% of running speed in TS2-TS3. For age group athletes, running speed decreased in TS1-TS2 and TS2-TS3. In TS3-Finish, running speed remained unchanged with the exception of the age group 40-44 years for which running speed increased. Running speed showed the largest decrease in the age group 18-24 years. To summarize, the top ten athletes in each edition maintained their running speed in the last segment (TS3-Finish) although running speed decreased over the first two segments (TS1-TS2 and TS2-TS3). The best pacers were athletes in the age group 40-44 years, who were able to achieve negative pacing in the last segment (TS3-Finish) of the race. The negative pacing in the last segment (TS3-Finish) was likely due to environmental conditions, such as early dawn and the flat circuit in segment TS3-Finish of the race.

No MeSH data available.