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Decisional impairments in cocaine addiction, reward bias, and cortical oscillation "unbalance".

Balconi M, Finocchiaro R - Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (2015)

Bottom Line: Behavioral responses (gain/loss options); frequency band modulation (asymmetry index) for delta, theta, alpha, and beta band; and cortical source localization (standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) were considered.The SUD group opted in favor of the immediate reward option (loss) more frequently than the long-term option (gain) when compared to the CG.Secondly, SUD showed increased left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward) choices in comparison with the CG.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Unit in Affective and Social Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy.

ABSTRACT
A vast amount of research has suggested that subjects with substance use disorder (SUD) might have difficulty making advantageous decisions that opt in favor of a longer-term, larger reward than an immediate, smaller reward. The current research explored the impact of reward bias and cortical frontal asymmetry (left lateralization effect) in SUD in response to a decisional task (Iowa Gambling Task). Fifty SUD participants and 40 controls (CG) were tested using the Iowa Gambling Task. Electrophysiology (electroencephalography) recording was performed during task execution. We measured left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex power activity. Behavioral responses (gain/loss options); frequency band modulation (asymmetry index) for delta, theta, alpha, and beta band; and cortical source localization (standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) were considered. The SUD group opted in favor of the immediate reward option (loss) more frequently than the long-term option (gain) when compared to the CG. Secondly, SUD showed increased left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward) choices in comparison with the CG. The left hemispheric unbalance effect and the "reward bias" were adduced to explain the decisional impairment in SUD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean values of LTA for each frequency band distinctly for the SUD group and CG as a function of condition (AD versus DD).Notes: (A) Delta; (B) theta; (C) alpha; and (D) beta.Abbreviations: AD, advantageous decks; DD, disadvantageous decks; SUD, substance use disorder; CG, control group; LTA, log-transformed asymmetry.
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f1-ndt-11-777: Mean values of LTA for each frequency band distinctly for the SUD group and CG as a function of condition (AD versus DD).Notes: (A) Delta; (B) theta; (C) alpha; and (D) beta.Abbreviations: AD, advantageous decks; DD, disadvantageous decks; SUD, substance use disorder; CG, control group; LTA, log-transformed asymmetry.

Mentions: The behavioral measures were subjected to a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), in which the between-subjects factor group (2; SUD versus CG) and the within-subjects factor block (5) were applied to the rI. Errors associated with inhomogeneity of variance were controlled by decreasing the degrees of freedom using the Greenhouse–Geiser epsilon (Table 2). A significant main effect was found for group (F[1,88]=13.56; P=0.001; η2=0.40), block (F[4,88]=15.23; P=0.001; η2=0.43), and group × block (F[4,88]=16.57; P=0.001; η2=0.44) (Figure 1). As revealed by post hoc analysis (contrast analysis for ANOVA, with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons), a higher rI was found for the CG compared to those with SUD within all five blocks (all P<0.001). Moreover, the CG showed significant differences when comparing the five intervals, with an increased performance observed across the intervals (all P<0.001), whereas the SUD group did not show any significant effect.


Decisional impairments in cocaine addiction, reward bias, and cortical oscillation "unbalance".

Balconi M, Finocchiaro R - Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (2015)

Mean values of LTA for each frequency band distinctly for the SUD group and CG as a function of condition (AD versus DD).Notes: (A) Delta; (B) theta; (C) alpha; and (D) beta.Abbreviations: AD, advantageous decks; DD, disadvantageous decks; SUD, substance use disorder; CG, control group; LTA, log-transformed asymmetry.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4376305&req=5

f1-ndt-11-777: Mean values of LTA for each frequency band distinctly for the SUD group and CG as a function of condition (AD versus DD).Notes: (A) Delta; (B) theta; (C) alpha; and (D) beta.Abbreviations: AD, advantageous decks; DD, disadvantageous decks; SUD, substance use disorder; CG, control group; LTA, log-transformed asymmetry.
Mentions: The behavioral measures were subjected to a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), in which the between-subjects factor group (2; SUD versus CG) and the within-subjects factor block (5) were applied to the rI. Errors associated with inhomogeneity of variance were controlled by decreasing the degrees of freedom using the Greenhouse–Geiser epsilon (Table 2). A significant main effect was found for group (F[1,88]=13.56; P=0.001; η2=0.40), block (F[4,88]=15.23; P=0.001; η2=0.43), and group × block (F[4,88]=16.57; P=0.001; η2=0.44) (Figure 1). As revealed by post hoc analysis (contrast analysis for ANOVA, with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons), a higher rI was found for the CG compared to those with SUD within all five blocks (all P<0.001). Moreover, the CG showed significant differences when comparing the five intervals, with an increased performance observed across the intervals (all P<0.001), whereas the SUD group did not show any significant effect.

Bottom Line: Behavioral responses (gain/loss options); frequency band modulation (asymmetry index) for delta, theta, alpha, and beta band; and cortical source localization (standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) were considered.The SUD group opted in favor of the immediate reward option (loss) more frequently than the long-term option (gain) when compared to the CG.Secondly, SUD showed increased left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward) choices in comparison with the CG.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Unit in Affective and Social Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy.

ABSTRACT
A vast amount of research has suggested that subjects with substance use disorder (SUD) might have difficulty making advantageous decisions that opt in favor of a longer-term, larger reward than an immediate, smaller reward. The current research explored the impact of reward bias and cortical frontal asymmetry (left lateralization effect) in SUD in response to a decisional task (Iowa Gambling Task). Fifty SUD participants and 40 controls (CG) were tested using the Iowa Gambling Task. Electrophysiology (electroencephalography) recording was performed during task execution. We measured left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex power activity. Behavioral responses (gain/loss options); frequency band modulation (asymmetry index) for delta, theta, alpha, and beta band; and cortical source localization (standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) were considered. The SUD group opted in favor of the immediate reward option (loss) more frequently than the long-term option (gain) when compared to the CG. Secondly, SUD showed increased left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward) choices in comparison with the CG. The left hemispheric unbalance effect and the "reward bias" were adduced to explain the decisional impairment in SUD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus