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Conservation of artists' acrylic emulsion paints: XPS, NEXAFS and ATR-FTIR studies of wet cleaning methods.

Willneff EA, Ormsby BA, Stevens JS, Jaye C, Fischer DA, Schroeder S - Surf Interface Anal (2014)

Bottom Line: Visual analysis established the relative cleaning efficacy of the wet cleaning treatments in line with previous results.X-ray spectroscopy analysis provided significant additional findings, including evidence for (i) surfactant extraction following aqueous swabbing, (ii) modifications to pigment following cleaning and (iii) cleaning system residues. © 2014 The Authors.Surface and Interface Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester The Mill, Sackville Street, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

ABSTRACT

Works of art prepared with acrylic emulsion paints became commercially available in the 1960s. It is increasingly necessary to undertake and optimise cleaning and preventative conservation treatments to ensure their longevity. Model artists' acrylic paint films covered with artificial soiling were thus prepared on a canvas support and exposed to a variety of wet cleaning treatments based on aqueous or hydrocarbon solvent systems. This included some with additives such as chelating agents and/or surfactants, and microemulsion systems made specifically for conservation practice. The impact of cleaning (soiling removal) on the paint film surface was examined visually and correlated with results of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared, XPS and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analyses - three spectroscopic techniques with increasing surface sensitivity ranging from approximately - 1000, 10 and 5 nm, respectively. Visual analysis established the relative cleaning efficacy of the wet cleaning treatments in line with previous results. X-ray spectroscopy analysis provided significant additional findings, including evidence for (i) surfactant extraction following aqueous swabbing, (ii) modifications to pigment following cleaning and (iii) cleaning system residues. © 2014 The Authors. Surface and Interface Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of paint films support trends in cleaning efficacy as identified by visual inspection.
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fig01: Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of paint films support trends in cleaning efficacy as identified by visual inspection.

Mentions: The ATR-FTIR (Fig. 1) readily identified surface soiling from a group of bands between 3600 and 3700 cm−1 and several bands in the fingerprint region at ca 1030 and 1000 cm−1 associated with vibrations of aluminosilicate materials in the soiling mixture, e.g. lattice water and Si–O stretches respectively. Further, bands associated with residues from the hydrocarbon makeup solvent of the soiling mixture were observed at ca 2920 and 2950 cm−1 (C–H stretch). The spectra of the soiled paint films after cleaning (Fig. 1) confirmed the trends in cleaning efficacy observed by eye. The vibrational bands associated with surface soiling diminished in proportion to cleaning efficacy of the surface treatment. Whereas soiling bands were completely gone after cleaning with the ME and ET, some soiling was still visible after cleaning with PS on both films and also water on the Talens film. Other modifications to components of the paint film such as surfactant, which was not detected on either paint films before or after cleaning, or pigment were not observed.


Conservation of artists' acrylic emulsion paints: XPS, NEXAFS and ATR-FTIR studies of wet cleaning methods.

Willneff EA, Ormsby BA, Stevens JS, Jaye C, Fischer DA, Schroeder S - Surf Interface Anal (2014)

Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of paint films support trends in cleaning efficacy as identified by visual inspection.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4376249&req=5

fig01: Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of paint films support trends in cleaning efficacy as identified by visual inspection.
Mentions: The ATR-FTIR (Fig. 1) readily identified surface soiling from a group of bands between 3600 and 3700 cm−1 and several bands in the fingerprint region at ca 1030 and 1000 cm−1 associated with vibrations of aluminosilicate materials in the soiling mixture, e.g. lattice water and Si–O stretches respectively. Further, bands associated with residues from the hydrocarbon makeup solvent of the soiling mixture were observed at ca 2920 and 2950 cm−1 (C–H stretch). The spectra of the soiled paint films after cleaning (Fig. 1) confirmed the trends in cleaning efficacy observed by eye. The vibrational bands associated with surface soiling diminished in proportion to cleaning efficacy of the surface treatment. Whereas soiling bands were completely gone after cleaning with the ME and ET, some soiling was still visible after cleaning with PS on both films and also water on the Talens film. Other modifications to components of the paint film such as surfactant, which was not detected on either paint films before or after cleaning, or pigment were not observed.

Bottom Line: Visual analysis established the relative cleaning efficacy of the wet cleaning treatments in line with previous results.X-ray spectroscopy analysis provided significant additional findings, including evidence for (i) surfactant extraction following aqueous swabbing, (ii) modifications to pigment following cleaning and (iii) cleaning system residues. © 2014 The Authors.Surface and Interface Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester The Mill, Sackville Street, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

ABSTRACT

Works of art prepared with acrylic emulsion paints became commercially available in the 1960s. It is increasingly necessary to undertake and optimise cleaning and preventative conservation treatments to ensure their longevity. Model artists' acrylic paint films covered with artificial soiling were thus prepared on a canvas support and exposed to a variety of wet cleaning treatments based on aqueous or hydrocarbon solvent systems. This included some with additives such as chelating agents and/or surfactants, and microemulsion systems made specifically for conservation practice. The impact of cleaning (soiling removal) on the paint film surface was examined visually and correlated with results of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared, XPS and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analyses - three spectroscopic techniques with increasing surface sensitivity ranging from approximately - 1000, 10 and 5 nm, respectively. Visual analysis established the relative cleaning efficacy of the wet cleaning treatments in line with previous results. X-ray spectroscopy analysis provided significant additional findings, including evidence for (i) surfactant extraction following aqueous swabbing, (ii) modifications to pigment following cleaning and (iii) cleaning system residues. © 2014 The Authors. Surface and Interface Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus