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Combination of Spirulina with glycyrrhizin prevents cognitive dysfunction in aged obese rats.

Madhavadas S, Subramanian S - Indian J Pharmacol (2015 Jan-Feb)

Bottom Line: Counting of the treatment days was done by considering first day of Sp administration as day 1.After the completion of 30 days of Spirulina treatment or 2 doses of Gly administration or the combination (SpGly) treatment, the animals were left for 3 weeks.The combination of Sp with Gly showed a significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in glucose, cholesterol, leptin levels in the serum with improvement in cognitive functions with concomitant reduction in AChE activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates (P < 0.0001) of the obese rats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the cognition enhancing effect of the combination of Spirulina and glycyrrhizin in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese aged rats.

Materials and methods: Obesity was induced in rats by administration of MSG (intraperitoneally, 4 mg/g body weight) for 14 consecutive days from day 1 after birth. Subsequently, the animals were allowed to grow for 18 months with food and water ad libitum. Hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, leptin resistance, were monitored in these animals. Cognitive status was assessed by Barne's maze task and hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels. Further, the animals were treated with Spirulina (Sp) (oral route, 1 g/Kg body weight, for 30 days) alone or glycyrrhizin (Gly) alone (intraperitoneal route, 0.1 mg/Kg, on day 15 and day 21), or their combination (SpGly). Counting of the treatment days was done by considering first day of Sp administration as day 1. After the completion of 30 days of Spirulina treatment or 2 doses of Gly administration or the combination (SpGly) treatment, the animals were left for 3 weeks. They were then were assessed for their biochemical and cognitive changes.

Results: The combination of Sp with Gly showed a significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in glucose, cholesterol, leptin levels in the serum with improvement in cognitive functions with concomitant reduction in AChE activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates (P < 0.0001) of the obese rats.

Conclusion: SpGly combination has a potential role in reversing cognitive dysfunctions associated with aging and obesity.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Total latency exhibited by experimental rats in Barne's maze task. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. MSG group showed a significant increase in latency when compatred to CM group. Total latency decreased significantly in the MSG Sp Gly group (P < 0.0001)
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Figure 2: Total latency exhibited by experimental rats in Barne's maze task. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. MSG group showed a significant increase in latency when compatred to CM group. Total latency decreased significantly in the MSG Sp Gly group (P < 0.0001)

Mentions: Memory retention was assessed after 5 days and the data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. There was significant increase in errors (P < 0.001) made by MSG group compared to CM group. There was no significant reduction in the number of errors made by MSG Sp and MSG Gly groups. Interestingly, MSG SpGly group showed a significant reduction in errors (P < 0.001) compared to MSG group. Area under the curve was calculated for each group to assess the time taken to reach the escape box in Barne's maze and as revealed in Figure 2, the MSG group exhibited significant alteration in memory retention and had the difficulty in locating the escape box. It is worthwhile to note that administration of SpGly combination had a dramatic effect in minimizing the memory impairment.


Combination of Spirulina with glycyrrhizin prevents cognitive dysfunction in aged obese rats.

Madhavadas S, Subramanian S - Indian J Pharmacol (2015 Jan-Feb)

Total latency exhibited by experimental rats in Barne's maze task. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. MSG group showed a significant increase in latency when compatred to CM group. Total latency decreased significantly in the MSG Sp Gly group (P < 0.0001)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4375816&req=5

Figure 2: Total latency exhibited by experimental rats in Barne's maze task. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. MSG group showed a significant increase in latency when compatred to CM group. Total latency decreased significantly in the MSG Sp Gly group (P < 0.0001)
Mentions: Memory retention was assessed after 5 days and the data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. There was significant increase in errors (P < 0.001) made by MSG group compared to CM group. There was no significant reduction in the number of errors made by MSG Sp and MSG Gly groups. Interestingly, MSG SpGly group showed a significant reduction in errors (P < 0.001) compared to MSG group. Area under the curve was calculated for each group to assess the time taken to reach the escape box in Barne's maze and as revealed in Figure 2, the MSG group exhibited significant alteration in memory retention and had the difficulty in locating the escape box. It is worthwhile to note that administration of SpGly combination had a dramatic effect in minimizing the memory impairment.

Bottom Line: Counting of the treatment days was done by considering first day of Sp administration as day 1.After the completion of 30 days of Spirulina treatment or 2 doses of Gly administration or the combination (SpGly) treatment, the animals were left for 3 weeks.The combination of Sp with Gly showed a significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in glucose, cholesterol, leptin levels in the serum with improvement in cognitive functions with concomitant reduction in AChE activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates (P < 0.0001) of the obese rats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the cognition enhancing effect of the combination of Spirulina and glycyrrhizin in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese aged rats.

Materials and methods: Obesity was induced in rats by administration of MSG (intraperitoneally, 4 mg/g body weight) for 14 consecutive days from day 1 after birth. Subsequently, the animals were allowed to grow for 18 months with food and water ad libitum. Hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, leptin resistance, were monitored in these animals. Cognitive status was assessed by Barne's maze task and hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels. Further, the animals were treated with Spirulina (Sp) (oral route, 1 g/Kg body weight, for 30 days) alone or glycyrrhizin (Gly) alone (intraperitoneal route, 0.1 mg/Kg, on day 15 and day 21), or their combination (SpGly). Counting of the treatment days was done by considering first day of Sp administration as day 1. After the completion of 30 days of Spirulina treatment or 2 doses of Gly administration or the combination (SpGly) treatment, the animals were left for 3 weeks. They were then were assessed for their biochemical and cognitive changes.

Results: The combination of Sp with Gly showed a significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in glucose, cholesterol, leptin levels in the serum with improvement in cognitive functions with concomitant reduction in AChE activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates (P < 0.0001) of the obese rats.

Conclusion: SpGly combination has a potential role in reversing cognitive dysfunctions associated with aging and obesity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus