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Lead-induced adverse effects on the reproductive system of rats with particular reference to histopathological changes in uterus.

Nakade UP, Garg SK, Sharma A, Choudhury S, Yadav RS, Gupta K, Sood N - Indian J Pharmacol (2015 Jan-Feb)

Bottom Line: Relative uterine weights were found to decrease by 27% in Group III and IV compared to control and low dose lead treated (30 ppm) rats.Lead levels were found to increase in a linear manner in blood along with a marked increase in bone levels in 100 ppm exposure group while there was a decrease in both the blood and bones levels at 300 ppm exposure.No apparent gross pathological lesions were observed in any of the vital organs, including uterus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, U.P. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Viswavidyalaya Evam Go-Anusandhan Sansthan, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study was undertaken to elucidate the adverse effect of lead on female reproductive system following in vivo exposure in rats.

Materials and methods: Animals of Group II, III and IV received lead acetate in drinking water (30, 100 and 300 ppm, respectively) for 28 days whereas Group I served as control. Lead levels in digested blood and bone samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Results: Marked and a significant decrease in per cent body weight gain was observed in rats of Group IV and III, respectively, compared to that in the control group. Relative uterine weights were found to decrease by 27% in Group III and IV compared to control and low dose lead treated (30 ppm) rats. Lead levels were found to increase in a linear manner in blood along with a marked increase in bone levels in 100 ppm exposure group while there was a decrease in both the blood and bones levels at 300 ppm exposure. Compared to plasma progesterone levels in rats of the control group, a nonsignificant (12.46-21.13%) reduction in plasma progesterone were observed in different lead-treated groups. No apparent gross pathological lesions were observed in any of the vital organs, including uterus. However, histopathological examination of uteri of different groups revealed lead-induced dose-dependent inflammatory changes, which were characterized by thickening of the endometrium, narrowing of uterine lumen, damage to endometrial glands and vacuolar degeneration in endometrial epithelial cells.

Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest lead-induced pathophysiological alterations in myometrium, which in turn may affect the reproductive efficiency of animals.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Uterine section of rats showing thickening of endometrium with projections in lumen (a), and chronic endometritis with damage of endometrial glands (b) after exposure to lead at 30 ppm level for 28 days (H and E, ×4 and ×20)
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Figure 3: Uterine section of rats showing thickening of endometrium with projections in lumen (a), and chronic endometritis with damage of endometrial glands (b) after exposure to lead at 30 ppm level for 28 days (H and E, ×4 and ×20)

Mentions: Alterations in cellular architecture of uterus of different lead-treatment groups are shown in Figures 3–5. Compared to the uteri of control group, uterus of rats treated with 30 ppm lead acetate (Group II) revealed uniform thickening of endometrium with projections leading to narrowing of lumen, besides chronic inflammation and damage to endometrial glands [Figure 3a and b]. There was extensive thickening of endometrium with projections and marked narrowing of the lumen in rats of Group III (100 ppm). In addition, vacuolar degeneration in endometrial epithelial cells, cystic degeneration of goblet cells, damage to endometrial glands and chronic inflammation were also observed as shown in Figure 4a and b. Uterine inflammatory changes in rats of Group IV (300 ppm) were more severe and characterized by massive thickening of the endometrium with projections and conspicuous narrowing of lumen. In addition, there was sloughing off of the lining endometrial epithelial cells, damage to endometrial glands and marked chronic inflammation as shown in Figure 5.


Lead-induced adverse effects on the reproductive system of rats with particular reference to histopathological changes in uterus.

Nakade UP, Garg SK, Sharma A, Choudhury S, Yadav RS, Gupta K, Sood N - Indian J Pharmacol (2015 Jan-Feb)

Uterine section of rats showing thickening of endometrium with projections in lumen (a), and chronic endometritis with damage of endometrial glands (b) after exposure to lead at 30 ppm level for 28 days (H and E, ×4 and ×20)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4375813&req=5

Figure 3: Uterine section of rats showing thickening of endometrium with projections in lumen (a), and chronic endometritis with damage of endometrial glands (b) after exposure to lead at 30 ppm level for 28 days (H and E, ×4 and ×20)
Mentions: Alterations in cellular architecture of uterus of different lead-treatment groups are shown in Figures 3–5. Compared to the uteri of control group, uterus of rats treated with 30 ppm lead acetate (Group II) revealed uniform thickening of endometrium with projections leading to narrowing of lumen, besides chronic inflammation and damage to endometrial glands [Figure 3a and b]. There was extensive thickening of endometrium with projections and marked narrowing of the lumen in rats of Group III (100 ppm). In addition, vacuolar degeneration in endometrial epithelial cells, cystic degeneration of goblet cells, damage to endometrial glands and chronic inflammation were also observed as shown in Figure 4a and b. Uterine inflammatory changes in rats of Group IV (300 ppm) were more severe and characterized by massive thickening of the endometrium with projections and conspicuous narrowing of lumen. In addition, there was sloughing off of the lining endometrial epithelial cells, damage to endometrial glands and marked chronic inflammation as shown in Figure 5.

Bottom Line: Relative uterine weights were found to decrease by 27% in Group III and IV compared to control and low dose lead treated (30 ppm) rats.Lead levels were found to increase in a linear manner in blood along with a marked increase in bone levels in 100 ppm exposure group while there was a decrease in both the blood and bones levels at 300 ppm exposure.No apparent gross pathological lesions were observed in any of the vital organs, including uterus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, U.P. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Viswavidyalaya Evam Go-Anusandhan Sansthan, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study was undertaken to elucidate the adverse effect of lead on female reproductive system following in vivo exposure in rats.

Materials and methods: Animals of Group II, III and IV received lead acetate in drinking water (30, 100 and 300 ppm, respectively) for 28 days whereas Group I served as control. Lead levels in digested blood and bone samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Results: Marked and a significant decrease in per cent body weight gain was observed in rats of Group IV and III, respectively, compared to that in the control group. Relative uterine weights were found to decrease by 27% in Group III and IV compared to control and low dose lead treated (30 ppm) rats. Lead levels were found to increase in a linear manner in blood along with a marked increase in bone levels in 100 ppm exposure group while there was a decrease in both the blood and bones levels at 300 ppm exposure. Compared to plasma progesterone levels in rats of the control group, a nonsignificant (12.46-21.13%) reduction in plasma progesterone were observed in different lead-treated groups. No apparent gross pathological lesions were observed in any of the vital organs, including uterus. However, histopathological examination of uteri of different groups revealed lead-induced dose-dependent inflammatory changes, which were characterized by thickening of the endometrium, narrowing of uterine lumen, damage to endometrial glands and vacuolar degeneration in endometrial epithelial cells.

Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest lead-induced pathophysiological alterations in myometrium, which in turn may affect the reproductive efficiency of animals.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus