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Current understanding of the relationship between periodontal and systemic diseases.

Mawardi HH, Elbadawi LS, Sonis ST - Saudi Med J (2015)

Bottom Line: More recently it has been suggested that PD has an etiological role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and preterm low-birth weight, among others.In this review, we critically evaluate the current knowledge on the relation between PD and systemic diseases overall, and specifically with cardiovascular diseases.The best available evidence today suggests that the infection and inflammatory reaction associated with PD may contribute toward systemic disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America. E-mail. hmawardi@partners.org.

ABSTRACT
Periodontal disease (PD) is among the most common infectious diseases affecting humans. While the burden of periodontal disease on oral health has been extensively investigated, a possible specific relationship between the disease and systemic health is a relatively new area of interest. More recently it has been suggested that PD has an etiological role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and preterm low-birth weight, among others. In this review, we critically evaluate the current knowledge on the relation between PD and systemic diseases overall, and specifically with cardiovascular diseases. The best available evidence today suggests that the infection and inflammatory reaction associated with PD may contribute toward systemic disease. It is critical that dentists and physicians are well informed of the potential general health impact of periodontal disease so that they are in a position to knowledgeably counsel patients. 

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Clinical comparison between healthy and periodontitis patients A) frontal intra-oral view for a patient with gingival health and stable periodontium demonstrating normal gingival color, marginal gingival level and intact inter-dental papillae; B) periapical radiographs for the patient in A, showing stable periodontium, normal bone level and absence of vertical bone defect; C) frontal intra-oral view of a patient with moderate to severe periodontitis presenting as loss of attachment (triangle), recession (arrow) and gingival edema (brace); D) periapical radiographs for the patient in C, showing calculus accumulation, horizontal bone loss (arrow) and vertical bone defect (triangle).
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Figure 1: Clinical comparison between healthy and periodontitis patients A) frontal intra-oral view for a patient with gingival health and stable periodontium demonstrating normal gingival color, marginal gingival level and intact inter-dental papillae; B) periapical radiographs for the patient in A, showing stable periodontium, normal bone level and absence of vertical bone defect; C) frontal intra-oral view of a patient with moderate to severe periodontitis presenting as loss of attachment (triangle), recession (arrow) and gingival edema (brace); D) periapical radiographs for the patient in C, showing calculus accumulation, horizontal bone loss (arrow) and vertical bone defect (triangle).

Mentions: Periodontal diseas is a heterogeneous, multifactorial, chronic inflammatory process affecting 10-15% of the general population.8,9 It is defined as the bacterial (microbial biofilm) and inflammatory destruction of gingiva and teeth supporting structure including bone and periodontium (Figure 1).10 Periodontal disease affects quality of life by reducing chewing function, impairing aesthetics, and inducing tooth loss. Plaque bacteria are the major drivers of PD pathogenesis, specifically gram negative bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusibacterium nucleatum (Fn).11


Current understanding of the relationship between periodontal and systemic diseases.

Mawardi HH, Elbadawi LS, Sonis ST - Saudi Med J (2015)

Clinical comparison between healthy and periodontitis patients A) frontal intra-oral view for a patient with gingival health and stable periodontium demonstrating normal gingival color, marginal gingival level and intact inter-dental papillae; B) periapical radiographs for the patient in A, showing stable periodontium, normal bone level and absence of vertical bone defect; C) frontal intra-oral view of a patient with moderate to severe periodontitis presenting as loss of attachment (triangle), recession (arrow) and gingival edema (brace); D) periapical radiographs for the patient in C, showing calculus accumulation, horizontal bone loss (arrow) and vertical bone defect (triangle).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4375690&req=5

Figure 1: Clinical comparison between healthy and periodontitis patients A) frontal intra-oral view for a patient with gingival health and stable periodontium demonstrating normal gingival color, marginal gingival level and intact inter-dental papillae; B) periapical radiographs for the patient in A, showing stable periodontium, normal bone level and absence of vertical bone defect; C) frontal intra-oral view of a patient with moderate to severe periodontitis presenting as loss of attachment (triangle), recession (arrow) and gingival edema (brace); D) periapical radiographs for the patient in C, showing calculus accumulation, horizontal bone loss (arrow) and vertical bone defect (triangle).
Mentions: Periodontal diseas is a heterogeneous, multifactorial, chronic inflammatory process affecting 10-15% of the general population.8,9 It is defined as the bacterial (microbial biofilm) and inflammatory destruction of gingiva and teeth supporting structure including bone and periodontium (Figure 1).10 Periodontal disease affects quality of life by reducing chewing function, impairing aesthetics, and inducing tooth loss. Plaque bacteria are the major drivers of PD pathogenesis, specifically gram negative bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusibacterium nucleatum (Fn).11

Bottom Line: More recently it has been suggested that PD has an etiological role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and preterm low-birth weight, among others.In this review, we critically evaluate the current knowledge on the relation between PD and systemic diseases overall, and specifically with cardiovascular diseases.The best available evidence today suggests that the infection and inflammatory reaction associated with PD may contribute toward systemic disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America. E-mail. hmawardi@partners.org.

ABSTRACT
Periodontal disease (PD) is among the most common infectious diseases affecting humans. While the burden of periodontal disease on oral health has been extensively investigated, a possible specific relationship between the disease and systemic health is a relatively new area of interest. More recently it has been suggested that PD has an etiological role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and preterm low-birth weight, among others. In this review, we critically evaluate the current knowledge on the relation between PD and systemic diseases overall, and specifically with cardiovascular diseases. The best available evidence today suggests that the infection and inflammatory reaction associated with PD may contribute toward systemic disease. It is critical that dentists and physicians are well informed of the potential general health impact of periodontal disease so that they are in a position to knowledgeably counsel patients. 

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus