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Complex epidemiology of a zoonotic disease in a culturally diverse region: phylogeography of rabies virus in the Middle East.

Horton DL, McElhinney LM, Freuling CM, Marston DA, Banyard AC, Goharrriz H, Wise E, Breed AC, Saturday G, Kolodziejek J, Zilahi E, Al-Kobaisi MF, Nowotny N, Mueller T, Fooks AR - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods.We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries.Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal and Plant Health Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom; School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Map showing distribution of virus variants in Middle East, with clades coloured according to Fig. 1.Approximate distribution of each detected RABV lineage is displayed using ArcGis (ESRI ArcGis version 10.0).
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pntd.0003569.g004: Map showing distribution of virus variants in Middle East, with clades coloured according to Fig. 1.Approximate distribution of each detected RABV lineage is displayed using ArcGis (ESRI ArcGis version 10.0).

Mentions: The maximum clade credibility tree was chosen using TreeAnnotator(v1.8.0) and visualised using FigTree (v1.2). Posterior support is given at key nodes, and lineages are labelled according to previous studies [32] with the four main Middle East clades A-D labelled and coloured by region corresponding to Fig. 4.


Complex epidemiology of a zoonotic disease in a culturally diverse region: phylogeography of rabies virus in the Middle East.

Horton DL, McElhinney LM, Freuling CM, Marston DA, Banyard AC, Goharrriz H, Wise E, Breed AC, Saturday G, Kolodziejek J, Zilahi E, Al-Kobaisi MF, Nowotny N, Mueller T, Fooks AR - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Map showing distribution of virus variants in Middle East, with clades coloured according to Fig. 1.Approximate distribution of each detected RABV lineage is displayed using ArcGis (ESRI ArcGis version 10.0).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374968&req=5

pntd.0003569.g004: Map showing distribution of virus variants in Middle East, with clades coloured according to Fig. 1.Approximate distribution of each detected RABV lineage is displayed using ArcGis (ESRI ArcGis version 10.0).
Mentions: The maximum clade credibility tree was chosen using TreeAnnotator(v1.8.0) and visualised using FigTree (v1.2). Posterior support is given at key nodes, and lineages are labelled according to previous studies [32] with the four main Middle East clades A-D labelled and coloured by region corresponding to Fig. 4.

Bottom Line: An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods.We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries.Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal and Plant Health Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom; School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus