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Complex epidemiology of a zoonotic disease in a culturally diverse region: phylogeography of rabies virus in the Middle East.

Horton DL, McElhinney LM, Freuling CM, Marston DA, Banyard AC, Goharrriz H, Wise E, Breed AC, Saturday G, Kolodziejek J, Zilahi E, Al-Kobaisi MF, Nowotny N, Mueller T, Fooks AR - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction.We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries.Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal and Plant Health Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom; School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Maximum clade credibility tree using host species as a discrete trait, using only sequences from viruses detected in wild canids or dogs.Branches are coloured by the most probable host species (dogs or wildlife) of the progeny node, with inset plots of relative probability at key nodes.
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pntd.0003569.g003: Maximum clade credibility tree using host species as a discrete trait, using only sequences from viruses detected in wild canids or dogs.Branches are coloured by the most probable host species (dogs or wildlife) of the progeny node, with inset plots of relative probability at key nodes.

Mentions: A separate analysis was undertaken to infer the most probable reservoir for the ancestors of selected clades. In a similar manner to the phylogeographic analysis, each sequence was given a discrete trait corresponding to the species in which the virus sequences were detected. Due to the inherent uncertainty in whether the host a virus was detected in is the actual reservoir, all likely ‘dead-end’ hosts were removed. This stringent approach was taken to increase the reliability of the analyses at the expense of sample size, by only using sequences from domestic dogs (including ownerless and free-roaming dogs) (n = 38), and wild canids (n = 35). A TN93 G+I model of nucleotide substitution, a strict molecular clock and constant population size were used as model priors. The analysis was run for an MCMC chain length of 20,000,000 iterations and the chosen maximum clade credibility tree was annotated with TreeAnnotator (v1.8.0), visualised with FigTree (v1.4.0) and coloured by host species with the highest posterior probability (Fig. 3).


Complex epidemiology of a zoonotic disease in a culturally diverse region: phylogeography of rabies virus in the Middle East.

Horton DL, McElhinney LM, Freuling CM, Marston DA, Banyard AC, Goharrriz H, Wise E, Breed AC, Saturday G, Kolodziejek J, Zilahi E, Al-Kobaisi MF, Nowotny N, Mueller T, Fooks AR - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Maximum clade credibility tree using host species as a discrete trait, using only sequences from viruses detected in wild canids or dogs.Branches are coloured by the most probable host species (dogs or wildlife) of the progeny node, with inset plots of relative probability at key nodes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374968&req=5

pntd.0003569.g003: Maximum clade credibility tree using host species as a discrete trait, using only sequences from viruses detected in wild canids or dogs.Branches are coloured by the most probable host species (dogs or wildlife) of the progeny node, with inset plots of relative probability at key nodes.
Mentions: A separate analysis was undertaken to infer the most probable reservoir for the ancestors of selected clades. In a similar manner to the phylogeographic analysis, each sequence was given a discrete trait corresponding to the species in which the virus sequences were detected. Due to the inherent uncertainty in whether the host a virus was detected in is the actual reservoir, all likely ‘dead-end’ hosts were removed. This stringent approach was taken to increase the reliability of the analyses at the expense of sample size, by only using sequences from domestic dogs (including ownerless and free-roaming dogs) (n = 38), and wild canids (n = 35). A TN93 G+I model of nucleotide substitution, a strict molecular clock and constant population size were used as model priors. The analysis was run for an MCMC chain length of 20,000,000 iterations and the chosen maximum clade credibility tree was annotated with TreeAnnotator (v1.8.0), visualised with FigTree (v1.4.0) and coloured by host species with the highest posterior probability (Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction.We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries.Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal and Plant Health Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom; School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus