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The association of alcohol consumption with mammographic density in a multiethnic urban population.

Quandt Z, Flom JD, Tehranifar P, Reynolds D, Terry MB, McDonald JA - BMC Cancer (2015)

Bottom Line: We considered confounding by age, body mass index (BMI), hormone contraceptive use, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, smoking status, nativity, race/ethnicity, age at first birth, and parity.We did not observe race/ethnicity modification of the association between alcohol intake and percent density.In women with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), drinkers consuming >7 servings/week of alcohol had a = 17% increase in percent density compared to nondrinkers (95% CI 5.4, 29.0) and there was no association in women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (BMI ≥ 25-30 kg/m(2) > 7 β = 5.1, 95% CI -8.5, 18.7 and BMI > 30 kg/m(2) > 7 β = 0.5, 95% CI -6.5, 7.5) after adjusting for age and BMI (continuous).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Medical Center, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA, zquandt@stanford.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Alcohol consumption is associated with higher breast cancer risk. While studies suggest a modest association between alcohol intake and mammographic density, few studies have examined the association in racial/ethnic minority populations.

Methods: We assessed dense breast area and total breast area from digitized film mammograms in an urban cohort of African American (42%), African Caribbean (22%), white (22%), and Hispanic Caribbean (9%) women (n = 189, ages 40-61). We examined the association between alcohol intake and mammographic density (percent density and dense area). We used linear regression to examine mean differences in mammographic density across alcohol intake categories. We considered confounding by age, body mass index (BMI), hormone contraceptive use, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, smoking status, nativity, race/ethnicity, age at first birth, and parity.

Results: Fifty percent currently consumed alcohol. Women who consumed >7 servings/week of alcohol, but not those consuming ≤7 servings/week, had higher percent density compared to nondrinkers after full adjustments (servings/week >7 β = 8.2, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.8, 14.6; ≤7 β = -0.5, 95% CI -3.7, 2.8). There was a positive association between high alcohol intake and dense area after full adjustments (servings/week >7 β = 5.8, 95% CI -2.7, 14.2; ≤7 β = -0.1, 95% CI -4.4, 4.2). We did not observe race/ethnicity modification of the association between alcohol intake and percent density. In women with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), drinkers consuming >7 servings/week of alcohol had a = 17% increase in percent density compared to nondrinkers (95% CI 5.4, 29.0) and there was no association in women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (BMI ≥ 25-30 kg/m(2) > 7 β = 5.1, 95% CI -8.5, 18.7 and BMI > 30 kg/m(2) > 7 β = 0.5, 95% CI -6.5, 7.5) after adjusting for age and BMI (continuous).

Conclusion: In a racially/ethnically diverse cohort, women who consumed >7 servings/week of alcohol, especially those with a BMI < 25 kg/m(2), had higher percent density.

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Multiple linear regression coefficients for the association between percent density and current alcohol intake (servings/week) by race/ethnicity, New York City Multiethnic Breast Cancer Project (n=176); 2007-2008. Models are adjusted for age at interview (years) and BMI (kg/m2, continuous). a Hispanic Caribbean women do not report consuming >7 servings/week of alcohol.
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Fig1: Multiple linear regression coefficients for the association between percent density and current alcohol intake (servings/week) by race/ethnicity, New York City Multiethnic Breast Cancer Project (n=176); 2007-2008. Models are adjusted for age at interview (years) and BMI (kg/m2, continuous). a Hispanic Caribbean women do not report consuming >7 servings/week of alcohol.

Mentions: In race/ethnic-stratified analyses after adjusting for age and continuous BMI, the confounders specific to percent density, we observed no associations between alcohol intake and percent density in African American, African Caribbean, and Hispanic women (Figure 1). White women who consumed >7 servings/week of alcohol had a 16% increase in percent density (95% CI 4.0, 28.5) after adjusting for age and BMI; however, only 5 women reported consuming at this level. Results for race/ethnic stratified analyses were essentially the same after fully adjusting for confounders where the strongest association was observed in white women who consumed >7 servings/week of alcohol (β = 29.9, 95% CI 18.2, 41.6). We also observed a strong positive linear relationship between alcohol intake (g/week) and percent density in fully adjusted models in white women only (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.004, 0.2). There was no additive interaction between alcohol intake and race/ethnicity when examining percent density, dense area, or non-dense area (all P values >0.05). However, race/ethnic stratified analyses for dense area suggest stronger effects in white women and African Caribbean women (data not shown).Figure 1


The association of alcohol consumption with mammographic density in a multiethnic urban population.

Quandt Z, Flom JD, Tehranifar P, Reynolds D, Terry MB, McDonald JA - BMC Cancer (2015)

Multiple linear regression coefficients for the association between percent density and current alcohol intake (servings/week) by race/ethnicity, New York City Multiethnic Breast Cancer Project (n=176); 2007-2008. Models are adjusted for age at interview (years) and BMI (kg/m2, continuous). a Hispanic Caribbean women do not report consuming >7 servings/week of alcohol.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374505&req=5

Fig1: Multiple linear regression coefficients for the association between percent density and current alcohol intake (servings/week) by race/ethnicity, New York City Multiethnic Breast Cancer Project (n=176); 2007-2008. Models are adjusted for age at interview (years) and BMI (kg/m2, continuous). a Hispanic Caribbean women do not report consuming >7 servings/week of alcohol.
Mentions: In race/ethnic-stratified analyses after adjusting for age and continuous BMI, the confounders specific to percent density, we observed no associations between alcohol intake and percent density in African American, African Caribbean, and Hispanic women (Figure 1). White women who consumed >7 servings/week of alcohol had a 16% increase in percent density (95% CI 4.0, 28.5) after adjusting for age and BMI; however, only 5 women reported consuming at this level. Results for race/ethnic stratified analyses were essentially the same after fully adjusting for confounders where the strongest association was observed in white women who consumed >7 servings/week of alcohol (β = 29.9, 95% CI 18.2, 41.6). We also observed a strong positive linear relationship between alcohol intake (g/week) and percent density in fully adjusted models in white women only (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.004, 0.2). There was no additive interaction between alcohol intake and race/ethnicity when examining percent density, dense area, or non-dense area (all P values >0.05). However, race/ethnic stratified analyses for dense area suggest stronger effects in white women and African Caribbean women (data not shown).Figure 1

Bottom Line: We considered confounding by age, body mass index (BMI), hormone contraceptive use, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, smoking status, nativity, race/ethnicity, age at first birth, and parity.We did not observe race/ethnicity modification of the association between alcohol intake and percent density.In women with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), drinkers consuming >7 servings/week of alcohol had a = 17% increase in percent density compared to nondrinkers (95% CI 5.4, 29.0) and there was no association in women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (BMI ≥ 25-30 kg/m(2) > 7 β = 5.1, 95% CI -8.5, 18.7 and BMI > 30 kg/m(2) > 7 β = 0.5, 95% CI -6.5, 7.5) after adjusting for age and BMI (continuous).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Medical Center, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA, zquandt@stanford.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Alcohol consumption is associated with higher breast cancer risk. While studies suggest a modest association between alcohol intake and mammographic density, few studies have examined the association in racial/ethnic minority populations.

Methods: We assessed dense breast area and total breast area from digitized film mammograms in an urban cohort of African American (42%), African Caribbean (22%), white (22%), and Hispanic Caribbean (9%) women (n = 189, ages 40-61). We examined the association between alcohol intake and mammographic density (percent density and dense area). We used linear regression to examine mean differences in mammographic density across alcohol intake categories. We considered confounding by age, body mass index (BMI), hormone contraceptive use, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, smoking status, nativity, race/ethnicity, age at first birth, and parity.

Results: Fifty percent currently consumed alcohol. Women who consumed >7 servings/week of alcohol, but not those consuming ≤7 servings/week, had higher percent density compared to nondrinkers after full adjustments (servings/week >7 β = 8.2, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.8, 14.6; ≤7 β = -0.5, 95% CI -3.7, 2.8). There was a positive association between high alcohol intake and dense area after full adjustments (servings/week >7 β = 5.8, 95% CI -2.7, 14.2; ≤7 β = -0.1, 95% CI -4.4, 4.2). We did not observe race/ethnicity modification of the association between alcohol intake and percent density. In women with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), drinkers consuming >7 servings/week of alcohol had a = 17% increase in percent density compared to nondrinkers (95% CI 5.4, 29.0) and there was no association in women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (BMI ≥ 25-30 kg/m(2) > 7 β = 5.1, 95% CI -8.5, 18.7 and BMI > 30 kg/m(2) > 7 β = 0.5, 95% CI -6.5, 7.5) after adjusting for age and BMI (continuous).

Conclusion: In a racially/ethnically diverse cohort, women who consumed >7 servings/week of alcohol, especially those with a BMI < 25 kg/m(2), had higher percent density.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus