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Composition of soil microbiome along elevation gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

Yasir M, Azhar EI, Khan I, Bibi F, Baabdullah R, Al-Zahrani IA, Al-Ghamdi AK - BMC Microbiol. (2015)

Bottom Line: The identified OTUs unique to each sample were very low irrespective of the altitude.Bacterial diversity and soil physicochemical properties did not show consistent changes along the elevation gradients.The large number of OTUs shared between the studied samples suggest the presence of a core soil bacterial community in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. yasirkhattak.mrl@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Saudi Arabia is mostly barren except the southwestern highlands that are susceptible to environmental changes, a hotspot for biodiversity, but poorly studied for microbial diversity and composition. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable region V6 was used to analyze soil bacterial community along elevation gradients of the southwestern highlands.

Results: In general, lower percentage of total soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen were detected in the analyzed soil samples. Total 33 different phyla were identified across the samples, including dominant phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. Representative OTUs were grouped into 329 and 508 different taxa at family and genus level taxonomic classification, respectively. The identified OTUs unique to each sample were very low irrespective of the altitude. Jackknifed principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed, overall differences in the bacterial community were more related to the quantity of specific OTUs than to their diversity among the studied samples.

Conclusions: Bacterial diversity and soil physicochemical properties did not show consistent changes along the elevation gradients. The large number of OTUs shared between the studied samples suggest the presence of a core soil bacterial community in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of the Asir region and studied sites. (A) Locations of soil sampling from selected four studied sites along different elevational gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia were marked with asterisk (∗). (B) Photographic images of sampling sites from the Tabalah and (C) the Sabt Alalayah. Map of the Asir region was reproduced from maphill (http://www.maphill.com).
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Fig5: Map of the Asir region and studied sites. (A) Locations of soil sampling from selected four studied sites along different elevational gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia were marked with asterisk (∗). (B) Photographic images of sampling sites from the Tabalah and (C) the Sabt Alalayah. Map of the Asir region was reproduced from maphill (http://www.maphill.com).

Mentions: Saudi Arabia is mostly an arid country with a few exceptional sub–humid areas including southwestern highlands in the Asir region that occupies 4.3% of the total country area and located between latitudes 17–21°N and longitudes 41–45°E [29]. Annual rainfall in this region is in the range of 300–500 millimeters and summer temperature raises up to 30°C and above that comparatively higher from other highlands of the world [12]. This region is well known for natural vegetation and for being a plants biodiversity hotspot in the Arabian Peninsula [12]. In this study, soil samples were collected at a broad level of elevational gradients having different density of vegetation and flora (Figure 5). Sandy type of soil samples, Shw1 and Swh2, were collected from the Tabalah area (19°52′55.7″N, 42°09′03.8″E) having no human activity or animal influence and low density of vegetation. Samples Swh3–Swh6 were collected from the Sabt Alalayah around the Shibanah wild park (19° 34′ 46.87″ N, 41° 55′ 14.19″ E) vegetated mainly by Olea europaea, Tarchonanthus camphorates and shrubs. Sample Swh6 was collected around a lack of rainwater, and Swh3 was collected from the land covered by mosses. Sample Swh7 and Swh8 were collected in the high mountainous area of Al Salamah (19°24′34.3″N, 42°00′29.7″E) covered by scattered condensed vegetation. Samples Swh9 and Swh10 were collected from the Afraa area (19°41′23.3″N, 42°01′33.4″E) vegetated by shrubs, Olea europaea and Juniperus procera etc.Figure 5


Composition of soil microbiome along elevation gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

Yasir M, Azhar EI, Khan I, Bibi F, Baabdullah R, Al-Zahrani IA, Al-Ghamdi AK - BMC Microbiol. (2015)

Map of the Asir region and studied sites. (A) Locations of soil sampling from selected four studied sites along different elevational gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia were marked with asterisk (∗). (B) Photographic images of sampling sites from the Tabalah and (C) the Sabt Alalayah. Map of the Asir region was reproduced from maphill (http://www.maphill.com).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374494&req=5

Fig5: Map of the Asir region and studied sites. (A) Locations of soil sampling from selected four studied sites along different elevational gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia were marked with asterisk (∗). (B) Photographic images of sampling sites from the Tabalah and (C) the Sabt Alalayah. Map of the Asir region was reproduced from maphill (http://www.maphill.com).
Mentions: Saudi Arabia is mostly an arid country with a few exceptional sub–humid areas including southwestern highlands in the Asir region that occupies 4.3% of the total country area and located between latitudes 17–21°N and longitudes 41–45°E [29]. Annual rainfall in this region is in the range of 300–500 millimeters and summer temperature raises up to 30°C and above that comparatively higher from other highlands of the world [12]. This region is well known for natural vegetation and for being a plants biodiversity hotspot in the Arabian Peninsula [12]. In this study, soil samples were collected at a broad level of elevational gradients having different density of vegetation and flora (Figure 5). Sandy type of soil samples, Shw1 and Swh2, were collected from the Tabalah area (19°52′55.7″N, 42°09′03.8″E) having no human activity or animal influence and low density of vegetation. Samples Swh3–Swh6 were collected from the Sabt Alalayah around the Shibanah wild park (19° 34′ 46.87″ N, 41° 55′ 14.19″ E) vegetated mainly by Olea europaea, Tarchonanthus camphorates and shrubs. Sample Swh6 was collected around a lack of rainwater, and Swh3 was collected from the land covered by mosses. Sample Swh7 and Swh8 were collected in the high mountainous area of Al Salamah (19°24′34.3″N, 42°00′29.7″E) covered by scattered condensed vegetation. Samples Swh9 and Swh10 were collected from the Afraa area (19°41′23.3″N, 42°01′33.4″E) vegetated by shrubs, Olea europaea and Juniperus procera etc.Figure 5

Bottom Line: The identified OTUs unique to each sample were very low irrespective of the altitude.Bacterial diversity and soil physicochemical properties did not show consistent changes along the elevation gradients.The large number of OTUs shared between the studied samples suggest the presence of a core soil bacterial community in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. yasirkhattak.mrl@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Saudi Arabia is mostly barren except the southwestern highlands that are susceptible to environmental changes, a hotspot for biodiversity, but poorly studied for microbial diversity and composition. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable region V6 was used to analyze soil bacterial community along elevation gradients of the southwestern highlands.

Results: In general, lower percentage of total soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen were detected in the analyzed soil samples. Total 33 different phyla were identified across the samples, including dominant phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. Representative OTUs were grouped into 329 and 508 different taxa at family and genus level taxonomic classification, respectively. The identified OTUs unique to each sample were very low irrespective of the altitude. Jackknifed principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed, overall differences in the bacterial community were more related to the quantity of specific OTUs than to their diversity among the studied samples.

Conclusions: Bacterial diversity and soil physicochemical properties did not show consistent changes along the elevation gradients. The large number of OTUs shared between the studied samples suggest the presence of a core soil bacterial community in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus