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Odyssey of human dental pulp stem cells and their remarkable ability to survive in extremely adverse conditions.

Mitsiadis TA, Woloszyk A - Front Physiol (2015)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Orofacial Development and Regeneration, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Oral Biology, Center for Dentistry, University of Zurich Zurich, Switzerland.

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Adult tissues contain stem cells, which proliferate to compensate for tissue loss throughout the life of the organism (Li and Clevers, ; Jiménez-Rojo et al., )... In seriously injured or carious teeth, stem cells residing in the dental pulp are responsible for the repair and regeneration of the damaged dental tissues (Catón et al., ; Mitsiadis et al., )... The potential of DPSCs for the regeneration of bone tissue in patients has been demonstrated with a successful trial assay that has been realized in Napoli (Italy) several years ago (Catón et al., ; Mitsiadis et al., )... Recent findings indicate that quiescent (reserve) and proliferating (active) stem cell pools may coexist in separate but adjacent compartments of many tissues (Li and Clevers, )... It has been proposed that stem cells can adopt a reversible quiescence state characterized by reduced metabolic activity in conditions such as lack of oxygen and/or nutrients (Cheung and Rando, )... It has been suggested that quiescence is an actively maintained state regulated by intrinsic mechanisms to sustain metabolic function during persistent environmental stress, and thus ensuring stem cell survival (Cheung and Rando, )... Viable stem cells were found in post-mortem tissues (Latil et al., )... Severe hypoxia could be critical for maintaining the viability of DPSCs... It is possible that mechanisms compatible with the low metabolic state of quiescence have allowed rapid responses for DMSCs re-activation... This Odyssey revealed that DPSCs are able to survive for prolonged periods of time in conditions of extreme stress... The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Visualization of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs): (A) upon arrival to Zurich (first passage), (B) after 6 h of culture (second passage), and (C) after 3 days of culture (second passage). Scale bars indicate the magnifications.
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Figure 1: Visualization of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs): (A) upon arrival to Zurich (first passage), (B) after 6 h of culture (second passage), and (C) after 3 days of culture (second passage). Scale bars indicate the magnifications.

Mentions: Sometimes discoveries are arising by chance, following a mistake or having an unexpected behavior. It was expected that the flask, upon its late arrival, would contain only dead cells. However, surprisingly, DPSCs (or a big part of them) were still alive after their journey (Figure 1A). DPSCs were extremely proliferative and became confluent within 3 days, after changing the medium (Figures 1B,C). How this could be explained? Recent findings indicate that quiescent (reserve) and proliferating (active) stem cell pools may coexist in separate but adjacent compartments of many tissues (Li and Clevers, 2010). It has been proposed that stem cells can adopt a reversible quiescence state characterized by reduced metabolic activity in conditions such as lack of oxygen and/or nutrients (Cheung and Rando, 2013). However, the mechanisms that allow quiescent stem cells to survive metabolic or environmental stress, to preserve their cellular and genomic integrity and to assure long-term survival are not yet elucidated. It has been suggested that quiescence is an actively maintained state regulated by intrinsic mechanisms to sustain metabolic function during persistent environmental stress, and thus ensuring stem cell survival (Cheung and Rando, 2013). Viable stem cells were found in post-mortem tissues (Latil et al., 2012). These cells were able to maintain their functional properties after prolonged storage in anoxia in vitro and after transplantation (Latil et al., 2012). Similarly, it has been shown that several stem cell populations reside in poorly oxygenated niches (Simsek et al., 2010). Quiescent stem cells have the ability to sense environmental changes and respond by re-entering the cell cycle for proliferation (Cheung and Rando, 2013). Severe hypoxia could be critical for maintaining the viability of DPSCs. It is possible that mechanisms compatible with the low metabolic state of quiescence have allowed rapid responses for DMSCs re-activation.


Odyssey of human dental pulp stem cells and their remarkable ability to survive in extremely adverse conditions.

Mitsiadis TA, Woloszyk A - Front Physiol (2015)

Visualization of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs): (A) upon arrival to Zurich (first passage), (B) after 6 h of culture (second passage), and (C) after 3 days of culture (second passage). Scale bars indicate the magnifications.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374452&req=5

Figure 1: Visualization of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs): (A) upon arrival to Zurich (first passage), (B) after 6 h of culture (second passage), and (C) after 3 days of culture (second passage). Scale bars indicate the magnifications.
Mentions: Sometimes discoveries are arising by chance, following a mistake or having an unexpected behavior. It was expected that the flask, upon its late arrival, would contain only dead cells. However, surprisingly, DPSCs (or a big part of them) were still alive after their journey (Figure 1A). DPSCs were extremely proliferative and became confluent within 3 days, after changing the medium (Figures 1B,C). How this could be explained? Recent findings indicate that quiescent (reserve) and proliferating (active) stem cell pools may coexist in separate but adjacent compartments of many tissues (Li and Clevers, 2010). It has been proposed that stem cells can adopt a reversible quiescence state characterized by reduced metabolic activity in conditions such as lack of oxygen and/or nutrients (Cheung and Rando, 2013). However, the mechanisms that allow quiescent stem cells to survive metabolic or environmental stress, to preserve their cellular and genomic integrity and to assure long-term survival are not yet elucidated. It has been suggested that quiescence is an actively maintained state regulated by intrinsic mechanisms to sustain metabolic function during persistent environmental stress, and thus ensuring stem cell survival (Cheung and Rando, 2013). Viable stem cells were found in post-mortem tissues (Latil et al., 2012). These cells were able to maintain their functional properties after prolonged storage in anoxia in vitro and after transplantation (Latil et al., 2012). Similarly, it has been shown that several stem cell populations reside in poorly oxygenated niches (Simsek et al., 2010). Quiescent stem cells have the ability to sense environmental changes and respond by re-entering the cell cycle for proliferation (Cheung and Rando, 2013). Severe hypoxia could be critical for maintaining the viability of DPSCs. It is possible that mechanisms compatible with the low metabolic state of quiescence have allowed rapid responses for DMSCs re-activation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Orofacial Development and Regeneration, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Oral Biology, Center for Dentistry, University of Zurich Zurich, Switzerland.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Adult tissues contain stem cells, which proliferate to compensate for tissue loss throughout the life of the organism (Li and Clevers, ; Jiménez-Rojo et al., )... In seriously injured or carious teeth, stem cells residing in the dental pulp are responsible for the repair and regeneration of the damaged dental tissues (Catón et al., ; Mitsiadis et al., )... The potential of DPSCs for the regeneration of bone tissue in patients has been demonstrated with a successful trial assay that has been realized in Napoli (Italy) several years ago (Catón et al., ; Mitsiadis et al., )... Recent findings indicate that quiescent (reserve) and proliferating (active) stem cell pools may coexist in separate but adjacent compartments of many tissues (Li and Clevers, )... It has been proposed that stem cells can adopt a reversible quiescence state characterized by reduced metabolic activity in conditions such as lack of oxygen and/or nutrients (Cheung and Rando, )... It has been suggested that quiescence is an actively maintained state regulated by intrinsic mechanisms to sustain metabolic function during persistent environmental stress, and thus ensuring stem cell survival (Cheung and Rando, )... Viable stem cells were found in post-mortem tissues (Latil et al., )... Severe hypoxia could be critical for maintaining the viability of DPSCs... It is possible that mechanisms compatible with the low metabolic state of quiescence have allowed rapid responses for DMSCs re-activation... This Odyssey revealed that DPSCs are able to survive for prolonged periods of time in conditions of extreme stress... The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

No MeSH data available.