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A cleanroom sleeping environment's impact on markers of oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders.

Faber S, Zinn GM, Boggess A, Fahrenholz T, Kern JC, Kingston HM - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Bottom Line: The younger cohort, age 5 and under, showed significantly greater mean decreases in two markers of immune dysregulation, CD3% and CD4%, than the older cohort.The younger children demonstrated significant improvements on behavioral rating scales compared to the older children.In a younger pair of identical twins, one twin showed significantly greater improvements in 4 out of 5 markers of oxidative stress, which corresponded with better overall behavioral rating scale scores than the other twin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medicine, The Children's Institute, 1405 Shady Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15217, USA. sfa@the-institute.org.

ABSTRACT

Background: An emerging paradigm suggests children with autism display a unique pattern of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic triggers that make them susceptible to developing dysfunctional heavy metal and chemical detoxification systems. These abnormalities could be caused by alterations in the methylation, sulfation, and metalloprotein pathways. This study sought to evaluate the physiological and behavioral effects of children with autism sleeping in an International Organization for Standardization Class 5 cleanroom.

Methods: Ten children with autism, ages 3-12, slept in a cleanroom for two weeks to evaluate changes in toxin levels, oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and behavior. Before and after the children slept in the cleanroom, samples of blood and hair and rating scale scores were obtained to assess these changes.

Results: Five children significantly lowered their concentration of oxidized glutathione, a biomarker of oxidative stress. The younger cohort, age 5 and under, showed significantly greater mean decreases in two markers of immune dysregulation, CD3% and CD4%, than the older cohort. Changes in serum magnesium, influencing neuronal regulation, correlated negatively while changes in serum iron, affecting oxygenation of tissues, correlated positively with age. Changes in serum benzene and PCB 28 concentrations showed significant negative correlations with age. The younger children demonstrated significant improvements on behavioral rating scales compared to the older children. In a younger pair of identical twins, one twin showed significantly greater improvements in 4 out of 5 markers of oxidative stress, which corresponded with better overall behavioral rating scale scores than the other twin.

Conclusions: Younger children who slept in the cleanroom altered elemental levels, decreased immune dysregulation, and improved behavioral rating scales, suggesting that their detoxification metabolism was briefly enhanced. The older children displayed a worsening in behavioral rating scale performance, which may have been caused by the mobilization of toxins from their tissues. The interpretation of this exploratory study is limited by lack of a control group and small sample size. The changes in physiology and behavior noted suggest that performance of larger, prospective controlled studies of exposure to nighttime or 24 hour cleanroom conditions for longer time periods may be useful for understanding detoxification in children with autism.

Trial registration: Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT02195401 (Obtained July 18, 2014).

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The results of the differences for benzene and PCB-28 versus age. The results display a negative correlation with age for each chemical with p = 0.021 for benzene and p = 0.028 for PCB-28.
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Fig3: The results of the differences for benzene and PCB-28 versus age. The results display a negative correlation with age for each chemical with p = 0.021 for benzene and p = 0.028 for PCB-28.

Mentions: Detectable quantities of benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were found in all serum samples at, or exceeding, national averages [83]. The change in serum benzene concentration negatively correlated with age (p = 0.021, r = − 0.71) as seen in Figure 3. One child in the older cohort significantly increased toluene by independent samples t-test. One child demonstrated a significant drop in o-xylene concentration by independent samples t-test. There were no significant differences in VOC concentrations in paired t-tests of pre- and post- findings for the set of ten children.Figure 3


A cleanroom sleeping environment's impact on markers of oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders.

Faber S, Zinn GM, Boggess A, Fahrenholz T, Kern JC, Kingston HM - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

The results of the differences for benzene and PCB-28 versus age. The results display a negative correlation with age for each chemical with p = 0.021 for benzene and p = 0.028 for PCB-28.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374395&req=5

Fig3: The results of the differences for benzene and PCB-28 versus age. The results display a negative correlation with age for each chemical with p = 0.021 for benzene and p = 0.028 for PCB-28.
Mentions: Detectable quantities of benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were found in all serum samples at, or exceeding, national averages [83]. The change in serum benzene concentration negatively correlated with age (p = 0.021, r = − 0.71) as seen in Figure 3. One child in the older cohort significantly increased toluene by independent samples t-test. One child demonstrated a significant drop in o-xylene concentration by independent samples t-test. There were no significant differences in VOC concentrations in paired t-tests of pre- and post- findings for the set of ten children.Figure 3

Bottom Line: The younger cohort, age 5 and under, showed significantly greater mean decreases in two markers of immune dysregulation, CD3% and CD4%, than the older cohort.The younger children demonstrated significant improvements on behavioral rating scales compared to the older children.In a younger pair of identical twins, one twin showed significantly greater improvements in 4 out of 5 markers of oxidative stress, which corresponded with better overall behavioral rating scale scores than the other twin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medicine, The Children's Institute, 1405 Shady Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15217, USA. sfa@the-institute.org.

ABSTRACT

Background: An emerging paradigm suggests children with autism display a unique pattern of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic triggers that make them susceptible to developing dysfunctional heavy metal and chemical detoxification systems. These abnormalities could be caused by alterations in the methylation, sulfation, and metalloprotein pathways. This study sought to evaluate the physiological and behavioral effects of children with autism sleeping in an International Organization for Standardization Class 5 cleanroom.

Methods: Ten children with autism, ages 3-12, slept in a cleanroom for two weeks to evaluate changes in toxin levels, oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and behavior. Before and after the children slept in the cleanroom, samples of blood and hair and rating scale scores were obtained to assess these changes.

Results: Five children significantly lowered their concentration of oxidized glutathione, a biomarker of oxidative stress. The younger cohort, age 5 and under, showed significantly greater mean decreases in two markers of immune dysregulation, CD3% and CD4%, than the older cohort. Changes in serum magnesium, influencing neuronal regulation, correlated negatively while changes in serum iron, affecting oxygenation of tissues, correlated positively with age. Changes in serum benzene and PCB 28 concentrations showed significant negative correlations with age. The younger children demonstrated significant improvements on behavioral rating scales compared to the older children. In a younger pair of identical twins, one twin showed significantly greater improvements in 4 out of 5 markers of oxidative stress, which corresponded with better overall behavioral rating scale scores than the other twin.

Conclusions: Younger children who slept in the cleanroom altered elemental levels, decreased immune dysregulation, and improved behavioral rating scales, suggesting that their detoxification metabolism was briefly enhanced. The older children displayed a worsening in behavioral rating scale performance, which may have been caused by the mobilization of toxins from their tissues. The interpretation of this exploratory study is limited by lack of a control group and small sample size. The changes in physiology and behavior noted suggest that performance of larger, prospective controlled studies of exposure to nighttime or 24 hour cleanroom conditions for longer time periods may be useful for understanding detoxification in children with autism.

Trial registration: Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT02195401 (Obtained July 18, 2014).

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus