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Life at the mesoscale: the self-organised cytoplasm and nucleoplasm.

Sear RP, Pagonabarraga I, Flaus A - BMC Biophys (2015)

Bottom Line: The challenges of mesoscale self-organisation were discussed at a CECAM workshop in July 2014.Biologists need approaches to observe highly dynamic, low affinity, low specificity associations and to perturb single structures, while biological physicists and biomathematicians need to work closely with biologists to build and validate quantitative models.A table of terminology is included to facilitate multidisciplinary efforts to reveal the richness and diversity of mesoscale cell biology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford, Surrey UK.

ABSTRACT
The cell contains highly dynamic structures exploiting physical principles of self-organisation at the mesoscale (100 nm to 10 μm). Examples include non-membrane bound cytoplasmic bodies, cytoskeleton-based motor networks and multi-scale chromatin organisation. The challenges of mesoscale self-organisation were discussed at a CECAM workshop in July 2014. Biologists need approaches to observe highly dynamic, low affinity, low specificity associations and to perturb single structures, while biological physicists and biomathematicians need to work closely with biologists to build and validate quantitative models. A table of terminology is included to facilitate multidisciplinary efforts to reveal the richness and diversity of mesoscale cell biology.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic of a eukaryote cell illustrating self-organised structures in both the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm. In the nucleus we highlight (in dark blue) a single chromosome, restricted to its territory, and show this chromosome’s euchromatin and heterochromatin domains. In the cytoplasm we have shown a number of cytoplasmic bodies: P granules, TRIM5α assemblies and a signalosome. In all three cases we have used a dashed ellipse with an arrow to indicate that at least some components of the body turn over rapidly, in minutes or less. Finally, we have also indicated microtubules (green) and actin filaments (red). We have shown flow of the cytoplasm due to a bulky cargo (brown) being pulled along a microtubule, and the cell’s actin-based cortex deforming as a bead is pushed down onto the cell.
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Fig2: Schematic of a eukaryote cell illustrating self-organised structures in both the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm. In the nucleus we highlight (in dark blue) a single chromosome, restricted to its territory, and show this chromosome’s euchromatin and heterochromatin domains. In the cytoplasm we have shown a number of cytoplasmic bodies: P granules, TRIM5α assemblies and a signalosome. In all three cases we have used a dashed ellipse with an arrow to indicate that at least some components of the body turn over rapidly, in minutes or less. Finally, we have also indicated microtubules (green) and actin filaments (red). We have shown flow of the cytoplasm due to a bulky cargo (brown) being pulled along a microtubule, and the cell’s actin-based cortex deforming as a bead is pushed down onto the cell.

Mentions: Here we define the mesoscale as being length scales larger than individual molecular machines such as ribosomes, but no larger than the size of the cell. In Figure 1 we place this range of length scales in context. With new experimental techniques we can see that on these length scales the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm are neither uniform nor static, but are highly organised and often highly dynamic. We have been dramatically underestimating the extent of this mesoscale self-organisation, and its role in key processes of the cell function. As our understanding increases, the number of mesoscale structures we are aware of is growing. We have illustrated a selection of the structures discussed at the workshop in Figure 2. This figure illustrates “mesoscale cell biology” in the sense that it is organisation of the cell interior on mid-range length scales.Figure 1


Life at the mesoscale: the self-organised cytoplasm and nucleoplasm.

Sear RP, Pagonabarraga I, Flaus A - BMC Biophys (2015)

Schematic of a eukaryote cell illustrating self-organised structures in both the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm. In the nucleus we highlight (in dark blue) a single chromosome, restricted to its territory, and show this chromosome’s euchromatin and heterochromatin domains. In the cytoplasm we have shown a number of cytoplasmic bodies: P granules, TRIM5α assemblies and a signalosome. In all three cases we have used a dashed ellipse with an arrow to indicate that at least some components of the body turn over rapidly, in minutes or less. Finally, we have also indicated microtubules (green) and actin filaments (red). We have shown flow of the cytoplasm due to a bulky cargo (brown) being pulled along a microtubule, and the cell’s actin-based cortex deforming as a bead is pushed down onto the cell.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374369&req=5

Fig2: Schematic of a eukaryote cell illustrating self-organised structures in both the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm. In the nucleus we highlight (in dark blue) a single chromosome, restricted to its territory, and show this chromosome’s euchromatin and heterochromatin domains. In the cytoplasm we have shown a number of cytoplasmic bodies: P granules, TRIM5α assemblies and a signalosome. In all three cases we have used a dashed ellipse with an arrow to indicate that at least some components of the body turn over rapidly, in minutes or less. Finally, we have also indicated microtubules (green) and actin filaments (red). We have shown flow of the cytoplasm due to a bulky cargo (brown) being pulled along a microtubule, and the cell’s actin-based cortex deforming as a bead is pushed down onto the cell.
Mentions: Here we define the mesoscale as being length scales larger than individual molecular machines such as ribosomes, but no larger than the size of the cell. In Figure 1 we place this range of length scales in context. With new experimental techniques we can see that on these length scales the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm are neither uniform nor static, but are highly organised and often highly dynamic. We have been dramatically underestimating the extent of this mesoscale self-organisation, and its role in key processes of the cell function. As our understanding increases, the number of mesoscale structures we are aware of is growing. We have illustrated a selection of the structures discussed at the workshop in Figure 2. This figure illustrates “mesoscale cell biology” in the sense that it is organisation of the cell interior on mid-range length scales.Figure 1

Bottom Line: The challenges of mesoscale self-organisation were discussed at a CECAM workshop in July 2014.Biologists need approaches to observe highly dynamic, low affinity, low specificity associations and to perturb single structures, while biological physicists and biomathematicians need to work closely with biologists to build and validate quantitative models.A table of terminology is included to facilitate multidisciplinary efforts to reveal the richness and diversity of mesoscale cell biology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford, Surrey UK.

ABSTRACT
The cell contains highly dynamic structures exploiting physical principles of self-organisation at the mesoscale (100 nm to 10 μm). Examples include non-membrane bound cytoplasmic bodies, cytoskeleton-based motor networks and multi-scale chromatin organisation. The challenges of mesoscale self-organisation were discussed at a CECAM workshop in July 2014. Biologists need approaches to observe highly dynamic, low affinity, low specificity associations and to perturb single structures, while biological physicists and biomathematicians need to work closely with biologists to build and validate quantitative models. A table of terminology is included to facilitate multidisciplinary efforts to reveal the richness and diversity of mesoscale cell biology.

No MeSH data available.