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Global gene expression patterns of grass carp following compensatory growth.

He L, Pei Y, Jiang Y, Li Y, Liao L, Zhu Z, Wang Y - BMC Genomics (2015)

Bottom Line: Compensatory growth is accelerated compared with normal growth and occurs when growth-limiting conditions are overcome.Moreover, when samples from experimental group in starved and re-feeding conditions were compared, 4903 and 2444 DEGs were found in muscle and liver.The results will enhance our understanding of the mechanism of compensatory growth in teleost fish.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China. helibowudi@ihb.ac.cn.

ABSTRACT

Background: Compensatory growth is accelerated compared with normal growth and occurs when growth-limiting conditions are overcome. Most animals, especially fish, are capable of compensatory growth, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Further investigation of the mechanism of compensatory growth in fish is needed to improve feeding efficiency, reduce cost, and explore growth-related genes.

Results: In the study, grass carp, an important farmed fish in China, were subjected to a compensatory growth experiment followed by transcriptome analysis by RNA-sequencing. Samples of fish from starved and re-feeding conditions were compared with the control. Under starved conditions, 4061 and 1988 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in muscle and liver tissue when compared the experimental group with control group, respectively. After re-feeding, 349 and 247 DEGs were identified in muscle and liver when the two groups were compared. Moreover, when samples from experimental group in starved and re-feeding conditions were compared, 4903 and 2444 DEGs were found in muscle and liver. Most of these DEGs were involved in metabolic processes, or encoded enzymes or proteins with catalytic activity or binding functions, or involved in metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. A number of the more significant DEGs were subjected to further analysis. Under fasting conditions, many up-regulated genes were associated with protein ubiquitination or degradation, whereas many down-regulated genes were involved in the metabolism of glucose and fatty acids. Under re-feeding conditions, genes participating in muscle synthesis and fatty acid metabolism were up-regulated significantly, and genes related to protein ubiquitination or degradation were down-regulated. Moreover, Several DEGs were random selected for confirmation by real-time quantitative PCR.

Conclusions: Global gene expression patterns of grass carp during compensatory growth were determined. To our knowledge, this is a first reported for a teleost fish. The results will enhance our understanding of the mechanism of compensatory growth in teleost fish.

Show MeSH
Growth curve and SGR of grass carp during compensatory growth. (A) Growth curve of grass carp during compensatory growth. Fish in experimental and control groups were weighted at six time points and the weights were subjected to curve drawn. In each time point, 15 grass carp from three subgroups were random selected and weighted. Data are given as mean ± standard deviation (S.D.). (B) SGR of grass carp during compensatory growth. SGRs were calculated for control and experimental group during the three time intervals: 0 ~ 1 weeks, 1 ~ 2 weeks, and 2 ~ 5 weeks. Asterisks represent significant differences between groups at each time intervals (P < 0.01) that calculated by T test.
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Fig1: Growth curve and SGR of grass carp during compensatory growth. (A) Growth curve of grass carp during compensatory growth. Fish in experimental and control groups were weighted at six time points and the weights were subjected to curve drawn. In each time point, 15 grass carp from three subgroups were random selected and weighted. Data are given as mean ± standard deviation (S.D.). (B) SGR of grass carp during compensatory growth. SGRs were calculated for control and experimental group during the three time intervals: 0 ~ 1 weeks, 1 ~ 2 weeks, and 2 ~ 5 weeks. Asterisks represent significant differences between groups at each time intervals (P < 0.01) that calculated by T test.

Mentions: The weight of fish in two groups was recorded at six time points and curves were drawn (Figure 1A). For the control group, a total increase of 1.16 g in body weight and a growth rate of 39.8% was obtained. For the experimental group, a total increase of 1.26 g in body weight and a growth rate of 49.5% was acquired. Moreover, the SGR in different time intervals was calculated (Figure 1B). In the first week, the weight of the experimental group decreased sharply following the induced starvation (12.2% decrease in body weight), indicated by a negative SGR (−1.84 ± 0.52). During the following week of re-feeding, the weight of the experimental group increased rapidly and resulted in a positive of SGR (3.95 ± 0.36), which is significantly higher than (P < 0.01) that in the control group (SGR = 1.64 ± 0.42). The elevated SGR that characterizes compensatory growth subsequently declined back to low level during the 2 ~ 5 weeks of realimentation, whereas the SGR of experimental group (SGR = 0.91 ± 0.14) was still significantly higher than (P < 0.01) that in the control group (SGR = 0.34 ± 0.19) (Figure 1B).Figure 1


Global gene expression patterns of grass carp following compensatory growth.

He L, Pei Y, Jiang Y, Li Y, Liao L, Zhu Z, Wang Y - BMC Genomics (2015)

Growth curve and SGR of grass carp during compensatory growth. (A) Growth curve of grass carp during compensatory growth. Fish in experimental and control groups were weighted at six time points and the weights were subjected to curve drawn. In each time point, 15 grass carp from three subgroups were random selected and weighted. Data are given as mean ± standard deviation (S.D.). (B) SGR of grass carp during compensatory growth. SGRs were calculated for control and experimental group during the three time intervals: 0 ~ 1 weeks, 1 ~ 2 weeks, and 2 ~ 5 weeks. Asterisks represent significant differences between groups at each time intervals (P < 0.01) that calculated by T test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374334&req=5

Fig1: Growth curve and SGR of grass carp during compensatory growth. (A) Growth curve of grass carp during compensatory growth. Fish in experimental and control groups were weighted at six time points and the weights were subjected to curve drawn. In each time point, 15 grass carp from three subgroups were random selected and weighted. Data are given as mean ± standard deviation (S.D.). (B) SGR of grass carp during compensatory growth. SGRs were calculated for control and experimental group during the three time intervals: 0 ~ 1 weeks, 1 ~ 2 weeks, and 2 ~ 5 weeks. Asterisks represent significant differences between groups at each time intervals (P < 0.01) that calculated by T test.
Mentions: The weight of fish in two groups was recorded at six time points and curves were drawn (Figure 1A). For the control group, a total increase of 1.16 g in body weight and a growth rate of 39.8% was obtained. For the experimental group, a total increase of 1.26 g in body weight and a growth rate of 49.5% was acquired. Moreover, the SGR in different time intervals was calculated (Figure 1B). In the first week, the weight of the experimental group decreased sharply following the induced starvation (12.2% decrease in body weight), indicated by a negative SGR (−1.84 ± 0.52). During the following week of re-feeding, the weight of the experimental group increased rapidly and resulted in a positive of SGR (3.95 ± 0.36), which is significantly higher than (P < 0.01) that in the control group (SGR = 1.64 ± 0.42). The elevated SGR that characterizes compensatory growth subsequently declined back to low level during the 2 ~ 5 weeks of realimentation, whereas the SGR of experimental group (SGR = 0.91 ± 0.14) was still significantly higher than (P < 0.01) that in the control group (SGR = 0.34 ± 0.19) (Figure 1B).Figure 1

Bottom Line: Compensatory growth is accelerated compared with normal growth and occurs when growth-limiting conditions are overcome.Moreover, when samples from experimental group in starved and re-feeding conditions were compared, 4903 and 2444 DEGs were found in muscle and liver.The results will enhance our understanding of the mechanism of compensatory growth in teleost fish.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China. helibowudi@ihb.ac.cn.

ABSTRACT

Background: Compensatory growth is accelerated compared with normal growth and occurs when growth-limiting conditions are overcome. Most animals, especially fish, are capable of compensatory growth, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Further investigation of the mechanism of compensatory growth in fish is needed to improve feeding efficiency, reduce cost, and explore growth-related genes.

Results: In the study, grass carp, an important farmed fish in China, were subjected to a compensatory growth experiment followed by transcriptome analysis by RNA-sequencing. Samples of fish from starved and re-feeding conditions were compared with the control. Under starved conditions, 4061 and 1988 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in muscle and liver tissue when compared the experimental group with control group, respectively. After re-feeding, 349 and 247 DEGs were identified in muscle and liver when the two groups were compared. Moreover, when samples from experimental group in starved and re-feeding conditions were compared, 4903 and 2444 DEGs were found in muscle and liver. Most of these DEGs were involved in metabolic processes, or encoded enzymes or proteins with catalytic activity or binding functions, or involved in metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. A number of the more significant DEGs were subjected to further analysis. Under fasting conditions, many up-regulated genes were associated with protein ubiquitination or degradation, whereas many down-regulated genes were involved in the metabolism of glucose and fatty acids. Under re-feeding conditions, genes participating in muscle synthesis and fatty acid metabolism were up-regulated significantly, and genes related to protein ubiquitination or degradation were down-regulated. Moreover, Several DEGs were random selected for confirmation by real-time quantitative PCR.

Conclusions: Global gene expression patterns of grass carp during compensatory growth were determined. To our knowledge, this is a first reported for a teleost fish. The results will enhance our understanding of the mechanism of compensatory growth in teleost fish.

Show MeSH