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Formulation and evaluation of galantamine gel as drug reservoir in transdermal patch delivery system.

Fong Yen W, Basri M, Ahmad M, Ismail M - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Bottom Line: Transdermal delivery of galantamine hydrobromide could avoid these unwanted side effects.The gel also showed high drug content uniformity.Hence, this formulation can be further used in the preparation of transdermal patch drug delivery system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43300 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Galantamine hydrobromide is formulated in tablets and capsules prescribed through oral delivery for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, oral delivery of drugs can cause severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal disturbance. Transdermal delivery of galantamine hydrobromide could avoid these unwanted side effects. In this work, galantamine hydrobromide was formulated in gel drug reservoir which was then fabricated in the transdermal patch. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that the drug release from the donor chamber to receptor chamber of Franz diffusion cell was affected by the amount of polymer, amount of neutralizer, amount of drug, types of permeation enhancer, and amount of permeation enhancer. Visual observations of the gels showed that all formulated gels are translucent, homogeneous, smooth, and stable. These gels have pH in the suitable range for skin. The gel also showed high drug content uniformity. Hence, this formulation can be further used in the preparation of transdermal patch drug delivery system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chemical structure of galantamine hydrobromide [7].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374332&req=5

sch1: Chemical structure of galantamine hydrobromide [7].

Mentions: Galantamine hydrobromide is a tertiary alkaloid, which is isolated from various plant species such as Narcissus and Lycoris species. It is useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease by inhibiting the activities of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. This prevents the breakdown of neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Hence, acetylcholine can survive and keep its function as neurotransmitter, which transmits signals across synapses [1–3]. Galantamine hydrobromide has advantages such as lower muscarinic side effects and higher speed of recovery from respiratory depression, can penetrate through the blood-brain barrier, can bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and enhanced microglial amyloid-beta peptides phagocytosis [4–6]. Scheme 1 shows the chemical structure of galantamine hydrobromide [7].


Formulation and evaluation of galantamine gel as drug reservoir in transdermal patch delivery system.

Fong Yen W, Basri M, Ahmad M, Ismail M - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Chemical structure of galantamine hydrobromide [7].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374332&req=5

sch1: Chemical structure of galantamine hydrobromide [7].
Mentions: Galantamine hydrobromide is a tertiary alkaloid, which is isolated from various plant species such as Narcissus and Lycoris species. It is useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease by inhibiting the activities of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. This prevents the breakdown of neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Hence, acetylcholine can survive and keep its function as neurotransmitter, which transmits signals across synapses [1–3]. Galantamine hydrobromide has advantages such as lower muscarinic side effects and higher speed of recovery from respiratory depression, can penetrate through the blood-brain barrier, can bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and enhanced microglial amyloid-beta peptides phagocytosis [4–6]. Scheme 1 shows the chemical structure of galantamine hydrobromide [7].

Bottom Line: Transdermal delivery of galantamine hydrobromide could avoid these unwanted side effects.The gel also showed high drug content uniformity.Hence, this formulation can be further used in the preparation of transdermal patch drug delivery system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43300 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Galantamine hydrobromide is formulated in tablets and capsules prescribed through oral delivery for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, oral delivery of drugs can cause severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal disturbance. Transdermal delivery of galantamine hydrobromide could avoid these unwanted side effects. In this work, galantamine hydrobromide was formulated in gel drug reservoir which was then fabricated in the transdermal patch. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that the drug release from the donor chamber to receptor chamber of Franz diffusion cell was affected by the amount of polymer, amount of neutralizer, amount of drug, types of permeation enhancer, and amount of permeation enhancer. Visual observations of the gels showed that all formulated gels are translucent, homogeneous, smooth, and stable. These gels have pH in the suitable range for skin. The gel also showed high drug content uniformity. Hence, this formulation can be further used in the preparation of transdermal patch drug delivery system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus