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Formulation and evaluation of galantamine gel as drug reservoir in transdermal patch delivery system.

Fong Yen W, Basri M, Ahmad M, Ismail M - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Bottom Line: Transdermal delivery of galantamine hydrobromide could avoid these unwanted side effects.The gel also showed high drug content uniformity.Hence, this formulation can be further used in the preparation of transdermal patch drug delivery system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43300 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Galantamine hydrobromide is formulated in tablets and capsules prescribed through oral delivery for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, oral delivery of drugs can cause severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal disturbance. Transdermal delivery of galantamine hydrobromide could avoid these unwanted side effects. In this work, galantamine hydrobromide was formulated in gel drug reservoir which was then fabricated in the transdermal patch. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that the drug release from the donor chamber to receptor chamber of Franz diffusion cell was affected by the amount of polymer, amount of neutralizer, amount of drug, types of permeation enhancer, and amount of permeation enhancer. Visual observations of the gels showed that all formulated gels are translucent, homogeneous, smooth, and stable. These gels have pH in the suitable range for skin. The gel also showed high drug content uniformity. Hence, this formulation can be further used in the preparation of transdermal patch drug delivery system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Drug release profile of gel drug reservoirs with different types of enhancer (mean ± S.D.; n = 3).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig4: Drug release profile of gel drug reservoirs with different types of enhancer (mean ± S.D.; n = 3).

Mentions: The effects of different types of penetration enhancers on drug release were investigated by changing the enhancers used in gels, namely, Brij 30, glycerine, linoleic acid, propylene glycol, and Brij 97. The enhancer which provides the best enhancement effect was then investigated on the effects of enhancer content on the drug release. Figure 4 and Table 2 show the effect of the enhancer types on drug release. All the penetration enhancers exhibited significantly higher drug release when compared to the control. Table 1 also lists the enhancement ratio of each penetration enhancer. Among these penetration enhancers, the highest percentage of drug release (43.95 ± 0.60%) and highest enhancement ratio (32.44) were obtained when propylene glycol is used. Similar results were reported by Gao et al. where propylene glycol has the highest enhancing activities [17]. Propylene glycol can be considered safe due to its low irritancy effect on skin [18]. Thus, the propylene glycol was selected as the penetration enhancers for further studies.


Formulation and evaluation of galantamine gel as drug reservoir in transdermal patch delivery system.

Fong Yen W, Basri M, Ahmad M, Ismail M - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Drug release profile of gel drug reservoirs with different types of enhancer (mean ± S.D.; n = 3).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374332&req=5

fig4: Drug release profile of gel drug reservoirs with different types of enhancer (mean ± S.D.; n = 3).
Mentions: The effects of different types of penetration enhancers on drug release were investigated by changing the enhancers used in gels, namely, Brij 30, glycerine, linoleic acid, propylene glycol, and Brij 97. The enhancer which provides the best enhancement effect was then investigated on the effects of enhancer content on the drug release. Figure 4 and Table 2 show the effect of the enhancer types on drug release. All the penetration enhancers exhibited significantly higher drug release when compared to the control. Table 1 also lists the enhancement ratio of each penetration enhancer. Among these penetration enhancers, the highest percentage of drug release (43.95 ± 0.60%) and highest enhancement ratio (32.44) were obtained when propylene glycol is used. Similar results were reported by Gao et al. where propylene glycol has the highest enhancing activities [17]. Propylene glycol can be considered safe due to its low irritancy effect on skin [18]. Thus, the propylene glycol was selected as the penetration enhancers for further studies.

Bottom Line: Transdermal delivery of galantamine hydrobromide could avoid these unwanted side effects.The gel also showed high drug content uniformity.Hence, this formulation can be further used in the preparation of transdermal patch drug delivery system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43300 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Galantamine hydrobromide is formulated in tablets and capsules prescribed through oral delivery for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, oral delivery of drugs can cause severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal disturbance. Transdermal delivery of galantamine hydrobromide could avoid these unwanted side effects. In this work, galantamine hydrobromide was formulated in gel drug reservoir which was then fabricated in the transdermal patch. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that the drug release from the donor chamber to receptor chamber of Franz diffusion cell was affected by the amount of polymer, amount of neutralizer, amount of drug, types of permeation enhancer, and amount of permeation enhancer. Visual observations of the gels showed that all formulated gels are translucent, homogeneous, smooth, and stable. These gels have pH in the suitable range for skin. The gel also showed high drug content uniformity. Hence, this formulation can be further used in the preparation of transdermal patch drug delivery system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus