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Bioavailability of fatty acids from krill oil, krill meal and fish oil in healthy subjects--a randomized, single-dose, cross-over trial.

Köhler A, Sarkkinen E, Tapola N, Niskanen T, Bruheim I - Lipids Health Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: EPA and DHA in krill oil had a higher 72-hour bioavailability than in krill meal or fish oil.Longer-term studies using a parameter reflecting tissue fatty acid composition, like erythrocyte EPA plus DHA are needed.NCT02089165.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Preventive Cardiology, Medizinische Klinik I, University of Munich, Ziemssenstr. 1, Munich, D-80336, Germany. Anton.Koehler@med.uni-muenchen.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Krill contains two marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), mainly bound in phospholipids. Typical products from krill are krill oil and krill meal. Fish oils contain EPA and DHA predominantly bound in triglycerides. The difference in the chemical binding of EPA and DHA has been suggested to affect their bioavailability, but little is known on bioavailability of EPA and DHA in krill meal. This study was undertaken to compare the acute bioavailability of two krill products, krill oil and krill meal, with fish oil in healthy subjects.

Methods: A randomized, single-dose, single-blind, cross-over, active-reference trial was conducted in 15 subjects, who ingested krill oil, krill meal and fish oil, each containing approx. 1 700 mg EPA and DHA. Fatty acid compositions of plasma triglycerides and phospholipids were measured repeatedly for 72 hours. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the 72 hour incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of EPA and DHA in plasma phospholipid fatty acids.

Results: A larger iAUC for EPA and DHA in plasma phospholipid fatty acids was detected after krill oil (mean 89.08±33.36%×h) than after krill meal (mean 44.97±18.07%xh, p<0.001) or after fish oil (mean 59.15±22.22%×h, p=0.003). Mean iAUC's after krill meal and after fish oil were not different. A large inter-individual variability in response was observed.

Conclusion: EPA and DHA in krill oil had a higher 72-hour bioavailability than in krill meal or fish oil. Our finding that bioavailabilities of EPA and DHA in krill meal and fish oil were not different argues against the interpretation that phospholipids are better absorbed than triglycerides. Longer-term studies using a parameter reflecting tissue fatty acid composition, like erythrocyte EPA plus DHA are needed.

Trial registration: NCT02089165.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Incremental area under 72 h response curve of EPA and DHA in plasma triglycerides after ingestion of different study products (krill oil, fish oil and krill meal) in 15 study subjects.
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Fig3: Incremental area under 72 h response curve of EPA and DHA in plasma triglycerides after ingestion of different study products (krill oil, fish oil and krill meal) in 15 study subjects.

Mentions: Compared to the findings in plasma phospholipids, the mean EPA + DHA incremental area under 72 h response curve in plasma triglycerides (iAUCTG) showed lower values. Numerically, the largest iAUCTG in plasma triglycerides was detected after fish oil supplement ingestion (mean 35.02 ± 26.54% × h), but the iAUCTG after ingestion of krill oil (mean 24.46 ± 17.60% × h, p=0.165) or krill meal (mean 25.05 ± 21.18% × h, p=0.931) were not significantly smaller. As shown in Figure. 3, the EPA + DHA levels in plasma triglycerides demonstrated a high variability in response between the 15 study subjects. The minimum iAUCTG detected after ingestion of krill oil was 0.56% × h, after fish oil 2.24% × h and after krill meal 0.05% × h. The maximum iAUCTG detected after ingestion of krill oil was 51.49% × h, after fish oil 97.74% × h and after krill meal 80.63% × h.Figure 3


Bioavailability of fatty acids from krill oil, krill meal and fish oil in healthy subjects--a randomized, single-dose, cross-over trial.

Köhler A, Sarkkinen E, Tapola N, Niskanen T, Bruheim I - Lipids Health Dis (2015)

Incremental area under 72 h response curve of EPA and DHA in plasma triglycerides after ingestion of different study products (krill oil, fish oil and krill meal) in 15 study subjects.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374210&req=5

Fig3: Incremental area under 72 h response curve of EPA and DHA in plasma triglycerides after ingestion of different study products (krill oil, fish oil and krill meal) in 15 study subjects.
Mentions: Compared to the findings in plasma phospholipids, the mean EPA + DHA incremental area under 72 h response curve in plasma triglycerides (iAUCTG) showed lower values. Numerically, the largest iAUCTG in plasma triglycerides was detected after fish oil supplement ingestion (mean 35.02 ± 26.54% × h), but the iAUCTG after ingestion of krill oil (mean 24.46 ± 17.60% × h, p=0.165) or krill meal (mean 25.05 ± 21.18% × h, p=0.931) were not significantly smaller. As shown in Figure. 3, the EPA + DHA levels in plasma triglycerides demonstrated a high variability in response between the 15 study subjects. The minimum iAUCTG detected after ingestion of krill oil was 0.56% × h, after fish oil 2.24% × h and after krill meal 0.05% × h. The maximum iAUCTG detected after ingestion of krill oil was 51.49% × h, after fish oil 97.74% × h and after krill meal 80.63% × h.Figure 3

Bottom Line: EPA and DHA in krill oil had a higher 72-hour bioavailability than in krill meal or fish oil.Longer-term studies using a parameter reflecting tissue fatty acid composition, like erythrocyte EPA plus DHA are needed.NCT02089165.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Preventive Cardiology, Medizinische Klinik I, University of Munich, Ziemssenstr. 1, Munich, D-80336, Germany. Anton.Koehler@med.uni-muenchen.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Krill contains two marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), mainly bound in phospholipids. Typical products from krill are krill oil and krill meal. Fish oils contain EPA and DHA predominantly bound in triglycerides. The difference in the chemical binding of EPA and DHA has been suggested to affect their bioavailability, but little is known on bioavailability of EPA and DHA in krill meal. This study was undertaken to compare the acute bioavailability of two krill products, krill oil and krill meal, with fish oil in healthy subjects.

Methods: A randomized, single-dose, single-blind, cross-over, active-reference trial was conducted in 15 subjects, who ingested krill oil, krill meal and fish oil, each containing approx. 1 700 mg EPA and DHA. Fatty acid compositions of plasma triglycerides and phospholipids were measured repeatedly for 72 hours. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the 72 hour incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of EPA and DHA in plasma phospholipid fatty acids.

Results: A larger iAUC for EPA and DHA in plasma phospholipid fatty acids was detected after krill oil (mean 89.08±33.36%×h) than after krill meal (mean 44.97±18.07%xh, p<0.001) or after fish oil (mean 59.15±22.22%×h, p=0.003). Mean iAUC's after krill meal and after fish oil were not different. A large inter-individual variability in response was observed.

Conclusion: EPA and DHA in krill oil had a higher 72-hour bioavailability than in krill meal or fish oil. Our finding that bioavailabilities of EPA and DHA in krill meal and fish oil were not different argues against the interpretation that phospholipids are better absorbed than triglycerides. Longer-term studies using a parameter reflecting tissue fatty acid composition, like erythrocyte EPA plus DHA are needed.

Trial registration: NCT02089165.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus