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Mixed infection of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis in rodents from endemic urban area of the New World.

Ferreira Ede C, Cruz I, Cañavate C, de Melo LA, Pereira AA, Madeira FA, Valério SA, Cunha HM, Paglia AP, Gontijo CM - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: Additionally, L. amazonensis was detected in the canine samples.The possible role of these animals as a source of infection of the vector of each species of Leishmania identified should not be overlooked and should be taken into account in future control activities.The results of mixed infection by L. braziliensis and L. infantum in cosmopolitan rodents as M. musculus and R. rattus, may have important implications in the context of the control of leishmaniasis in urban areas, especially when considering that these rodents live in close relationship with human dwellings, especially those in more precarious conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fiocruz Mato Grosso do Sul, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Campo Grande, MS, Brasil. ecferreira@fiocruz.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: In Brazil Leishmania braziliensis and L. infantum are the principal species responsible for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases, respectively. Domestic dogs are the main reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis, while rodents and marsupials are the main reservoirs for cutaneous leishmaniasis. It has also been suggested that dogs could play a role in transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The identification of the species of Leishmania, the reservoirs, and the vectors involved in each particular transmission cycle is critical for the establishment of control activities. Belo Horizonte has emerged as an endemic region for leishmaniases, however, epidemiological studies assessing the contribution of wild reservoirs to transmission are scarce in the area. The aim of this study was to investigate Leishmania spp. infection in possible reservoirs of an urbanized area.

Results: A high rate of infection was found in small mammals (64.9%) and dogs (DG1 30.4% and DG2 48.6%). The presence of L. infantum and L. braziliensis was detected in small mammals and dogs, and mixed infections by both species were detected in rodents which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first description of this phenomenon in an urban area. Additionally, L. amazonensis was detected in the canine samples.

Conclusion: The possible role of these animals as a source of infection of the vector of each species of Leishmania identified should not be overlooked and should be taken into account in future control activities. The results of mixed infection by L. braziliensis and L. infantum in cosmopolitan rodents as M. musculus and R. rattus, may have important implications in the context of the control of leishmaniasis in urban areas, especially when considering that these rodents live in close relationship with human dwellings, especially those in more precarious conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Agarose gel electrophosis of the amplication products from LnPCR for the SSUrRNA gene. Samples: MM:100 bpmolecular size marker; NC: Negative Control; 01 to 10: amplifield DNA from mammal samples; PC: Positive control-L.braziliensis (MOHM/BR/75/M2903)DNA.
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Fig1: Agarose gel electrophosis of the amplication products from LnPCR for the SSUrRNA gene. Samples: MM:100 bpmolecular size marker; NC: Negative Control; 01 to 10: amplifield DNA from mammal samples; PC: Positive control-L.braziliensis (MOHM/BR/75/M2903)DNA.

Mentions: After LnPCR analysis of the different biological samples any animal presenting an LnPCR positive result (Figure 1) in at least one of the biological samples tested was considered infected. Small mammals (N = 97) had the highest infection rate (47.4--83.3%), which varied according to species (details in Table 2). Among dogs, DG1 (N = 92) showed an infection rate of 30.4%, while DG-2 (N = 70) had an infection rate of 48.6% (Table 2). Among small mammals, samples from liver, spleen and tail skin showed a higher infection rate (22.4--33.7%) than samples taken from ear skin and bone marrow (5.2--10.2%). No significant differences were observed in the infection rate of the different samples taken from DG2 (Table 3).Figure 1


Mixed infection of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis in rodents from endemic urban area of the New World.

Ferreira Ede C, Cruz I, Cañavate C, de Melo LA, Pereira AA, Madeira FA, Valério SA, Cunha HM, Paglia AP, Gontijo CM - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Agarose gel electrophosis of the amplication products from LnPCR for the SSUrRNA gene. Samples: MM:100 bpmolecular size marker; NC: Negative Control; 01 to 10: amplifield DNA from mammal samples; PC: Positive control-L.braziliensis (MOHM/BR/75/M2903)DNA.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374209&req=5

Fig1: Agarose gel electrophosis of the amplication products from LnPCR for the SSUrRNA gene. Samples: MM:100 bpmolecular size marker; NC: Negative Control; 01 to 10: amplifield DNA from mammal samples; PC: Positive control-L.braziliensis (MOHM/BR/75/M2903)DNA.
Mentions: After LnPCR analysis of the different biological samples any animal presenting an LnPCR positive result (Figure 1) in at least one of the biological samples tested was considered infected. Small mammals (N = 97) had the highest infection rate (47.4--83.3%), which varied according to species (details in Table 2). Among dogs, DG1 (N = 92) showed an infection rate of 30.4%, while DG-2 (N = 70) had an infection rate of 48.6% (Table 2). Among small mammals, samples from liver, spleen and tail skin showed a higher infection rate (22.4--33.7%) than samples taken from ear skin and bone marrow (5.2--10.2%). No significant differences were observed in the infection rate of the different samples taken from DG2 (Table 3).Figure 1

Bottom Line: Additionally, L. amazonensis was detected in the canine samples.The possible role of these animals as a source of infection of the vector of each species of Leishmania identified should not be overlooked and should be taken into account in future control activities.The results of mixed infection by L. braziliensis and L. infantum in cosmopolitan rodents as M. musculus and R. rattus, may have important implications in the context of the control of leishmaniasis in urban areas, especially when considering that these rodents live in close relationship with human dwellings, especially those in more precarious conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fiocruz Mato Grosso do Sul, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Campo Grande, MS, Brasil. ecferreira@fiocruz.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: In Brazil Leishmania braziliensis and L. infantum are the principal species responsible for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases, respectively. Domestic dogs are the main reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis, while rodents and marsupials are the main reservoirs for cutaneous leishmaniasis. It has also been suggested that dogs could play a role in transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The identification of the species of Leishmania, the reservoirs, and the vectors involved in each particular transmission cycle is critical for the establishment of control activities. Belo Horizonte has emerged as an endemic region for leishmaniases, however, epidemiological studies assessing the contribution of wild reservoirs to transmission are scarce in the area. The aim of this study was to investigate Leishmania spp. infection in possible reservoirs of an urbanized area.

Results: A high rate of infection was found in small mammals (64.9%) and dogs (DG1 30.4% and DG2 48.6%). The presence of L. infantum and L. braziliensis was detected in small mammals and dogs, and mixed infections by both species were detected in rodents which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first description of this phenomenon in an urban area. Additionally, L. amazonensis was detected in the canine samples.

Conclusion: The possible role of these animals as a source of infection of the vector of each species of Leishmania identified should not be overlooked and should be taken into account in future control activities. The results of mixed infection by L. braziliensis and L. infantum in cosmopolitan rodents as M. musculus and R. rattus, may have important implications in the context of the control of leishmaniasis in urban areas, especially when considering that these rodents live in close relationship with human dwellings, especially those in more precarious conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus