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Cyclic growth of hierarchical structures in the aluminum-silicate system.

Dyonizy A, Kaminker V, Wieckowska J, Krzywicki T, Pantaleone J, Nowak P, Maselko J - J Syst Chem (2015)

Bottom Line: This system may provide a simple model system to search for universal laws governing the growth of complex hierarchical structures.Graphical AbstractSide view of the chemical structure made from many vertical cones to form a chemical metropolis.The tallest structure is 17 cm high.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Technical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Biological structures grow spontaneously from a seed, using materials supplied by the environment. These structures are hierarchical, with the 'building blocks' on each level constructed from those on the lower level. To understand and model the processes that occur on many levels, and later construct them, is a difficult task. However interest in this subject is growing. It is now possible to study the spontaneous growth of hierarchical structures in simple, two component chemical systems.

Results: Aluminum-silicate systems have been observed to grow into structures that are approximately conical. These structures are composed of multiple smaller cones with several hierarchical levels of complexity. On the highest level the system resembles a metropolis, with a horizontal resource distribution network connecting vertical, conical structures. The cones are made from many smaller cones that are connected together forming a whole with unusual behavior. The growth is observed to switch periodically between the vertical and horizontal directions.

Conclusion: A structure grown in a dish is observed to have many similarities to other hierarchical systems such as biological organisms or cities. This system may provide a simple model system to search for universal laws governing the growth of complex hierarchical structures. Graphical AbstractSide view of the chemical structure made from many vertical cones to form a chemical metropolis. The tallest structure is 17 cm high.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maximum height and average width of the structure as function of volumetric scale length for Experiment B. The vertical lines indicate times when the growth switches between vertical and horizontal.
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Fig4: Maximum height and average width of the structure as function of volumetric scale length for Experiment B. The vertical lines indicate times when the growth switches between vertical and horizontal.

Mentions: The vertical growth of the conical structures is not uniform but, as found in Experiment A, often switches to horizontal growth. However for the structure in Experiment B the horizontal growth is not confined to just the cones, instead it can also take the form of new horizontal spreading and finger formation along the bottom of the experimental vessel. To quantify the growth found in Experiment B in a manner similar to that done for Experiment A, we have defined an average width for the entire structure.2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document} $$ \mathrm{average}\ \mathrm{width}={A}^{1/2} $$ \end{document}averagewidth=A1/2where A is the horizontal area of the structure as viewed from above. The maximum vertical height and average width are plotted versus the scale height in Figure 4 for Experiment B. This figure shows that the growth switches between the vertical and horizontal directions, qualitatively similar to what was found for Experiment A.Figure 4


Cyclic growth of hierarchical structures in the aluminum-silicate system.

Dyonizy A, Kaminker V, Wieckowska J, Krzywicki T, Pantaleone J, Nowak P, Maselko J - J Syst Chem (2015)

Maximum height and average width of the structure as function of volumetric scale length for Experiment B. The vertical lines indicate times when the growth switches between vertical and horizontal.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4374113&req=5

Fig4: Maximum height and average width of the structure as function of volumetric scale length for Experiment B. The vertical lines indicate times when the growth switches between vertical and horizontal.
Mentions: The vertical growth of the conical structures is not uniform but, as found in Experiment A, often switches to horizontal growth. However for the structure in Experiment B the horizontal growth is not confined to just the cones, instead it can also take the form of new horizontal spreading and finger formation along the bottom of the experimental vessel. To quantify the growth found in Experiment B in a manner similar to that done for Experiment A, we have defined an average width for the entire structure.2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document} $$ \mathrm{average}\ \mathrm{width}={A}^{1/2} $$ \end{document}averagewidth=A1/2where A is the horizontal area of the structure as viewed from above. The maximum vertical height and average width are plotted versus the scale height in Figure 4 for Experiment B. This figure shows that the growth switches between the vertical and horizontal directions, qualitatively similar to what was found for Experiment A.Figure 4

Bottom Line: This system may provide a simple model system to search for universal laws governing the growth of complex hierarchical structures.Graphical AbstractSide view of the chemical structure made from many vertical cones to form a chemical metropolis.The tallest structure is 17 cm high.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Technical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Biological structures grow spontaneously from a seed, using materials supplied by the environment. These structures are hierarchical, with the 'building blocks' on each level constructed from those on the lower level. To understand and model the processes that occur on many levels, and later construct them, is a difficult task. However interest in this subject is growing. It is now possible to study the spontaneous growth of hierarchical structures in simple, two component chemical systems.

Results: Aluminum-silicate systems have been observed to grow into structures that are approximately conical. These structures are composed of multiple smaller cones with several hierarchical levels of complexity. On the highest level the system resembles a metropolis, with a horizontal resource distribution network connecting vertical, conical structures. The cones are made from many smaller cones that are connected together forming a whole with unusual behavior. The growth is observed to switch periodically between the vertical and horizontal directions.

Conclusion: A structure grown in a dish is observed to have many similarities to other hierarchical systems such as biological organisms or cities. This system may provide a simple model system to search for universal laws governing the growth of complex hierarchical structures. Graphical AbstractSide view of the chemical structure made from many vertical cones to form a chemical metropolis. The tallest structure is 17 cm high.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus