Engineering skeletal muscle tissue--new perspectives in vitro and in vivo.
Bottom Line: However, the field of skeletal muscle TE has been developing tremendously and new approaches and techniques have emerged.This review will highlight recent developments in the field of nanotechnology, especially electrospun nanofibre matrices, as well as potential cell sources for muscle TE.Important developments in cardiac muscle TE and clinical studies on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will be included to show their implications on skeletal muscle TE.
Affiliation: Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: As mentioned before, nanofibre matrices with parallel alignment (Figs. 3 and 4) prove as ideal scaffolds for cultivating myoblasts . The generation of parallel fibre alignment can be easily achieved by using a rotating mandrel to collect the nanofibres . However, the pore sizes of electrospun matrices with parallel fibre alignment are hardly controllable and have ever been a great challenge. Therefore, electrospinning of aligned nanofibres into 3D scaffolds usually results in densely packed nanofibres  leading to poor cell infiltration of slow degradable nanofibrous scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. Baker and coworkers have introduced the method of co-spinning sacrificial fibres into 3D aligned nanofibre matrices . The sacrificial fibres, e.g. water-soluble poly-(ethylene-oxide), are leached out after electrospinning and leave behind interspaces where cells can easily pass through . Thus the interspaces between the aligned nanofibres can be augmented without increasing the fibre diameter.
Affiliation: Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.