Endogenous toll-like receptor ligands and their biological significance.
Bottom Line: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of pattern recognition receptors, recognize and respond to conserved components of microbes and play a crucial role in both innate and adaptive immunity.Accumulating evidence demonstrates that endogenous ligand-mediated TLR signalling is involved in pathological conditions such as tissue injury, repair and regeneration; autoimmune diseases and tumorigenesis.The ability of TLRs to recognize endogenous stimulators appears to be essential to their function in regulating non-infectious inflammation.
Affiliation: Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, P.R. China.Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: Ischemia/reperfusion injury is implicated in a broad array of pathological conditions such as myocardial infarction; cerebral stroke; and hepatic, renal and intestinal ischemia as well as following cardiovascular and transplant surgery . The hallmark of these pathologies is extreme inflammation. Massive tissue injury with a large number of cells undergoing necrosis lead to the release of DAMPs from dead and dying cells resulting in the activation of TLRs and sterile inflammation (Fig. 2) . Most of the evidence for the existence of endogenous TLR ligands is based on the study of I/R injury, the majority of endogenous ligands are likely to be involved in the activation of TLRs in I/R injury [80–82], but a strong necrosis-induced inflammatory response may, at least in part, be mediated by HMGB1 .
Affiliation: Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, P.R. China.