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The fascinating and secret wild life of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae.

Liti G - Elife (2015)

Bottom Line: However, it wasn't until a decade ago that the scientific community started to realise how little was known about this yeast's ecology and natural history, and how this information was vitally important for interpreting its biology.Recent large-scale population genomics studies coupled with intensive field surveys have revealed a previously unappreciated wild lifestyle of S. cerevisiae outside the restrictions of human environments and laboratories.The recent discovery that Chinese isolates harbour almost twice as much genetic variation as isolates from the rest of the world combined suggests that Asia is the likely origin of the modern budding yeast.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Research on Cancer and Ageing of Nice, CNRS UMR 7284, INSERM U1081, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France.

ABSTRACT
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used in laboratory experiments for over a century and has been instrumental in understanding virtually every aspect of molecular biology and genetics. However, it wasn't until a decade ago that the scientific community started to realise how little was known about this yeast's ecology and natural history, and how this information was vitally important for interpreting its biology. Recent large-scale population genomics studies coupled with intensive field surveys have revealed a previously unappreciated wild lifestyle of S. cerevisiae outside the restrictions of human environments and laboratories. The recent discovery that Chinese isolates harbour almost twice as much genetic variation as isolates from the rest of the world combined suggests that Asia is the likely origin of the modern budding yeast.

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S. cerevisiae yeast: single cells and as a population.(A) Budding cells of the reference (S288c) strain of S. cerevisiae, expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP), which marks the centre of the cell. The cells are also stained with calcofluor-white, which stains the outer walls of the cells blue. (B) Sporulating cells of the North American oak S. cerevisiae isolate YPS606, stained with calcofluor-white, in which the protein SPS2 is labelled with GFP (Gerke et al., 2006), which marks the ascospore wall in green. (C) A clonal colony with a population size of approximately 7 × 106 cells derived from a single S. cerevisiae cell grown on a solid agar medium. Such colony structures have never been observed in the wild. Image credits: Benjamin Barré and Gianni Liti.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05835.003
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fig1: S. cerevisiae yeast: single cells and as a population.(A) Budding cells of the reference (S288c) strain of S. cerevisiae, expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP), which marks the centre of the cell. The cells are also stained with calcofluor-white, which stains the outer walls of the cells blue. (B) Sporulating cells of the North American oak S. cerevisiae isolate YPS606, stained with calcofluor-white, in which the protein SPS2 is labelled with GFP (Gerke et al., 2006), which marks the ascospore wall in green. (C) A clonal colony with a population size of approximately 7 × 106 cells derived from a single S. cerevisiae cell grown on a solid agar medium. Such colony structures have never been observed in the wild. Image credits: Benjamin Barré and Gianni Liti.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05835.003

Mentions: The S. cerevisiae lifecycle, under precisely controlled laboratory conditions, is one of the best understood at the mechanistic level. Our ability to control its sexual cycle and to switch it between mitotic and meiotic reproduction is one of the great experimental strengths of this yeast system. Paradoxically, we know very little about its life cycle in natural settings (Box 1), and what little we do know is indirectly inferred from studying its life cycle in the lab, which precludes any firm conclusions (Boynton and Greig, 2014). In the wild, yeast cells are found in fluctuating environments and are often subjected to a shortage of food. For instance, one of this yeast's natural habitats, oak bark, subjects it to seasonal cycles of tree sap flow, in addition to changing climate conditions. S. cerevisiae cells therefore likely spend much of their time in a non-dividing state called quiescence (Gray et al., 2004). When conditions become favourable, S. cerevisiae is able to grow on a modest array of fermentable and non-fermentable carbon sources (mostly six-carbon sugars). The availability of nutrients is likely to result in a rapid, mitotic clonal expansion of diploid yeast cells (Figure 1A,C).


The fascinating and secret wild life of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae.

Liti G - Elife (2015)

S. cerevisiae yeast: single cells and as a population.(A) Budding cells of the reference (S288c) strain of S. cerevisiae, expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP), which marks the centre of the cell. The cells are also stained with calcofluor-white, which stains the outer walls of the cells blue. (B) Sporulating cells of the North American oak S. cerevisiae isolate YPS606, stained with calcofluor-white, in which the protein SPS2 is labelled with GFP (Gerke et al., 2006), which marks the ascospore wall in green. (C) A clonal colony with a population size of approximately 7 × 106 cells derived from a single S. cerevisiae cell grown on a solid agar medium. Such colony structures have never been observed in the wild. Image credits: Benjamin Barré and Gianni Liti.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05835.003
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4373461&req=5

fig1: S. cerevisiae yeast: single cells and as a population.(A) Budding cells of the reference (S288c) strain of S. cerevisiae, expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP), which marks the centre of the cell. The cells are also stained with calcofluor-white, which stains the outer walls of the cells blue. (B) Sporulating cells of the North American oak S. cerevisiae isolate YPS606, stained with calcofluor-white, in which the protein SPS2 is labelled with GFP (Gerke et al., 2006), which marks the ascospore wall in green. (C) A clonal colony with a population size of approximately 7 × 106 cells derived from a single S. cerevisiae cell grown on a solid agar medium. Such colony structures have never been observed in the wild. Image credits: Benjamin Barré and Gianni Liti.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05835.003
Mentions: The S. cerevisiae lifecycle, under precisely controlled laboratory conditions, is one of the best understood at the mechanistic level. Our ability to control its sexual cycle and to switch it between mitotic and meiotic reproduction is one of the great experimental strengths of this yeast system. Paradoxically, we know very little about its life cycle in natural settings (Box 1), and what little we do know is indirectly inferred from studying its life cycle in the lab, which precludes any firm conclusions (Boynton and Greig, 2014). In the wild, yeast cells are found in fluctuating environments and are often subjected to a shortage of food. For instance, one of this yeast's natural habitats, oak bark, subjects it to seasonal cycles of tree sap flow, in addition to changing climate conditions. S. cerevisiae cells therefore likely spend much of their time in a non-dividing state called quiescence (Gray et al., 2004). When conditions become favourable, S. cerevisiae is able to grow on a modest array of fermentable and non-fermentable carbon sources (mostly six-carbon sugars). The availability of nutrients is likely to result in a rapid, mitotic clonal expansion of diploid yeast cells (Figure 1A,C).

Bottom Line: However, it wasn't until a decade ago that the scientific community started to realise how little was known about this yeast's ecology and natural history, and how this information was vitally important for interpreting its biology.Recent large-scale population genomics studies coupled with intensive field surveys have revealed a previously unappreciated wild lifestyle of S. cerevisiae outside the restrictions of human environments and laboratories.The recent discovery that Chinese isolates harbour almost twice as much genetic variation as isolates from the rest of the world combined suggests that Asia is the likely origin of the modern budding yeast.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Research on Cancer and Ageing of Nice, CNRS UMR 7284, INSERM U1081, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France.

ABSTRACT
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used in laboratory experiments for over a century and has been instrumental in understanding virtually every aspect of molecular biology and genetics. However, it wasn't until a decade ago that the scientific community started to realise how little was known about this yeast's ecology and natural history, and how this information was vitally important for interpreting its biology. Recent large-scale population genomics studies coupled with intensive field surveys have revealed a previously unappreciated wild lifestyle of S. cerevisiae outside the restrictions of human environments and laboratories. The recent discovery that Chinese isolates harbour almost twice as much genetic variation as isolates from the rest of the world combined suggests that Asia is the likely origin of the modern budding yeast.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus