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A-to-I RNA Editing: Current Knowledge Sources and Computational Approaches with Special Emphasis on Non-Coding RNA Molecules.

Nigita G, Veneziano D, Ferro A - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2015)

Bottom Line: The ADARs bind double-stranded regions and deaminate adenosine (A) into inosine (I), which in turn is interpreted by the translation and splicing machineries as guanosine (G).The malfunction of the editing machinery is not surprisingly associated with various human diseases, such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and carcinogenic diseases.Despite the enormous efforts made so far, the real biological function of this phenomenon, as well as the features of the ADAR substrate, in particular in non-coding RNAs, has still not been fully understood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, Ohio State University , Columbus, OH , USA.

ABSTRACT
RNA editing is a dynamic mechanism for gene regulation attained through the alteration of the sequence of primary RNA transcripts. A-to-I (adenosine-to-inosine) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes, is the most common post-transcriptional modification in humans. The ADARs bind double-stranded regions and deaminate adenosine (A) into inosine (I), which in turn is interpreted by the translation and splicing machineries as guanosine (G). In recent years, this modification has been discovered to occur not only in coding RNAs but also in non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), such as microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, transfer RNAs, and long non-coding RNAs. This may have several consequences, such as the creation or disruption of microRNA/mRNA binding sites, and thus affect the biogenesis, stability, and target recognition properties of ncRNAs. The malfunction of the editing machinery is not surprisingly associated with various human diseases, such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and carcinogenic diseases. Despite the enormous efforts made so far, the real biological function of this phenomenon, as well as the features of the ADAR substrate, in particular in non-coding RNAs, has still not been fully understood. In this work, we focus on the current knowledge of RNA editing on ncRNA molecules and provide a few examples of computational approaches to elucidate its biological function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mainly hypothetical biological consequences. In this figure, we show some of the main biological consequences of A-to-I RNA editing in ncRNA molecules, both in nucleus and cytoplasm.
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Figure 1: Mainly hypothetical biological consequences. In this figure, we show some of the main biological consequences of A-to-I RNA editing in ncRNA molecules, both in nucleus and cytoplasm.

Mentions: In the last decade, editing events have been discovered in ncRNA molecules, such as miRNAs, siRNAs, tRNAs, and lncRNAs. Although not fully demonstrated yet, these editing sites could alter the stability, the biogenesis, and target recognition of ncRNAs, as shown in Figure 1.


A-to-I RNA Editing: Current Knowledge Sources and Computational Approaches with Special Emphasis on Non-Coding RNA Molecules.

Nigita G, Veneziano D, Ferro A - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2015)

Mainly hypothetical biological consequences. In this figure, we show some of the main biological consequences of A-to-I RNA editing in ncRNA molecules, both in nucleus and cytoplasm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4373398&req=5

Figure 1: Mainly hypothetical biological consequences. In this figure, we show some of the main biological consequences of A-to-I RNA editing in ncRNA molecules, both in nucleus and cytoplasm.
Mentions: In the last decade, editing events have been discovered in ncRNA molecules, such as miRNAs, siRNAs, tRNAs, and lncRNAs. Although not fully demonstrated yet, these editing sites could alter the stability, the biogenesis, and target recognition of ncRNAs, as shown in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: The ADARs bind double-stranded regions and deaminate adenosine (A) into inosine (I), which in turn is interpreted by the translation and splicing machineries as guanosine (G).The malfunction of the editing machinery is not surprisingly associated with various human diseases, such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and carcinogenic diseases.Despite the enormous efforts made so far, the real biological function of this phenomenon, as well as the features of the ADAR substrate, in particular in non-coding RNAs, has still not been fully understood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, Ohio State University , Columbus, OH , USA.

ABSTRACT
RNA editing is a dynamic mechanism for gene regulation attained through the alteration of the sequence of primary RNA transcripts. A-to-I (adenosine-to-inosine) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes, is the most common post-transcriptional modification in humans. The ADARs bind double-stranded regions and deaminate adenosine (A) into inosine (I), which in turn is interpreted by the translation and splicing machineries as guanosine (G). In recent years, this modification has been discovered to occur not only in coding RNAs but also in non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), such as microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, transfer RNAs, and long non-coding RNAs. This may have several consequences, such as the creation or disruption of microRNA/mRNA binding sites, and thus affect the biogenesis, stability, and target recognition properties of ncRNAs. The malfunction of the editing machinery is not surprisingly associated with various human diseases, such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and carcinogenic diseases. Despite the enormous efforts made so far, the real biological function of this phenomenon, as well as the features of the ADAR substrate, in particular in non-coding RNAs, has still not been fully understood. In this work, we focus on the current knowledge of RNA editing on ncRNA molecules and provide a few examples of computational approaches to elucidate its biological function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus