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Keeping track of the growing number of biological functions of chitin and its interaction partners in biomedical research.

Koch BE, Stougaard J, Spaink HP - Glycobiology (2015)

Bottom Line: In many studies, these proteins have been found to be involved in immune regulation and in mediating the degradation of chitinous external protective structures of invading pathogens.Finally, we examine the existing literature on zebrafish chitinases, and propose the use of zebrafish as a versatile model to complement the existing murine models.This could especially be of benefit to the exploration of the function of chitinases in infectious diseases using high-throughput approaches and pharmaceutical interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark Leiden University, Institute of Biology, Leiden, The Netherlands.

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Zebrafish embryos for in vivo investigation of the role of chitinases in vertebrate disease progression. The characteristics of the zebrafish model can be taken advantage of in investigations of molecular and cellular interactions from highly detailed confocal microscopy to high-throughput software-based image analysis. (A) 2 DPF zebrafish embryo infected by GFP expressing Aspergillus niger. (B) High-magnification confocal microscopy image of a zebrafish transiently expressing a microinjected chitinase:eGFP reporter fusion construct driven by the natural promoter of the chitinase gene, and expressed as extrachromosomal DNA. The rod-shaped red fluorescent cell is a S. typhimurium cell, which has been injected into the embryo at 28 h post fertilization. (C) High-throughput software-assisted confocal image analysis has been applied to study metastatic behavior of injected cancer cells with strong statistics. Image from Ghotra et al. (2012). (D) Medium-throughput fluorescent microscopy image analysis can be used to follow progression of bacterial infections by automated pixel-count and image recognition.
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CWV005F5: Zebrafish embryos for in vivo investigation of the role of chitinases in vertebrate disease progression. The characteristics of the zebrafish model can be taken advantage of in investigations of molecular and cellular interactions from highly detailed confocal microscopy to high-throughput software-based image analysis. (A) 2 DPF zebrafish embryo infected by GFP expressing Aspergillus niger. (B) High-magnification confocal microscopy image of a zebrafish transiently expressing a microinjected chitinase:eGFP reporter fusion construct driven by the natural promoter of the chitinase gene, and expressed as extrachromosomal DNA. The rod-shaped red fluorescent cell is a S. typhimurium cell, which has been injected into the embryo at 28 h post fertilization. (C) High-throughput software-assisted confocal image analysis has been applied to study metastatic behavior of injected cancer cells with strong statistics. Image from Ghotra et al. (2012). (D) Medium-throughput fluorescent microscopy image analysis can be used to follow progression of bacterial infections by automated pixel-count and image recognition.

Mentions: The exciting recent findings linking chitinases and CLPs to the cellular immune responses towards bacterial (Cozzarini et al. 2009; Dela Cruz et al. 2012; Tran et al. 2014) and fungal (Wagener et al. 2014) infections highlights the necessity for an amenable in vivo infection model. One such model for studies of disease progression and impact of genetic and pharmaceutical approaches could be the zebrafish. The optical clarity of the developing larvae makes it amenable to real-time evaluation of disease progression and high-throughput compound screening. These unique features allow for high-throughput, as well as detailed, microscopy and image-based analysis of disease progression and innate immune cell response patterns (see Figure 5) and (Brothers et al. 2013; Knox et al. 2014).Fig. 5.


Keeping track of the growing number of biological functions of chitin and its interaction partners in biomedical research.

Koch BE, Stougaard J, Spaink HP - Glycobiology (2015)

Zebrafish embryos for in vivo investigation of the role of chitinases in vertebrate disease progression. The characteristics of the zebrafish model can be taken advantage of in investigations of molecular and cellular interactions from highly detailed confocal microscopy to high-throughput software-based image analysis. (A) 2 DPF zebrafish embryo infected by GFP expressing Aspergillus niger. (B) High-magnification confocal microscopy image of a zebrafish transiently expressing a microinjected chitinase:eGFP reporter fusion construct driven by the natural promoter of the chitinase gene, and expressed as extrachromosomal DNA. The rod-shaped red fluorescent cell is a S. typhimurium cell, which has been injected into the embryo at 28 h post fertilization. (C) High-throughput software-assisted confocal image analysis has been applied to study metastatic behavior of injected cancer cells with strong statistics. Image from Ghotra et al. (2012). (D) Medium-throughput fluorescent microscopy image analysis can be used to follow progression of bacterial infections by automated pixel-count and image recognition.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4373397&req=5

CWV005F5: Zebrafish embryos for in vivo investigation of the role of chitinases in vertebrate disease progression. The characteristics of the zebrafish model can be taken advantage of in investigations of molecular and cellular interactions from highly detailed confocal microscopy to high-throughput software-based image analysis. (A) 2 DPF zebrafish embryo infected by GFP expressing Aspergillus niger. (B) High-magnification confocal microscopy image of a zebrafish transiently expressing a microinjected chitinase:eGFP reporter fusion construct driven by the natural promoter of the chitinase gene, and expressed as extrachromosomal DNA. The rod-shaped red fluorescent cell is a S. typhimurium cell, which has been injected into the embryo at 28 h post fertilization. (C) High-throughput software-assisted confocal image analysis has been applied to study metastatic behavior of injected cancer cells with strong statistics. Image from Ghotra et al. (2012). (D) Medium-throughput fluorescent microscopy image analysis can be used to follow progression of bacterial infections by automated pixel-count and image recognition.
Mentions: The exciting recent findings linking chitinases and CLPs to the cellular immune responses towards bacterial (Cozzarini et al. 2009; Dela Cruz et al. 2012; Tran et al. 2014) and fungal (Wagener et al. 2014) infections highlights the necessity for an amenable in vivo infection model. One such model for studies of disease progression and impact of genetic and pharmaceutical approaches could be the zebrafish. The optical clarity of the developing larvae makes it amenable to real-time evaluation of disease progression and high-throughput compound screening. These unique features allow for high-throughput, as well as detailed, microscopy and image-based analysis of disease progression and innate immune cell response patterns (see Figure 5) and (Brothers et al. 2013; Knox et al. 2014).Fig. 5.

Bottom Line: In many studies, these proteins have been found to be involved in immune regulation and in mediating the degradation of chitinous external protective structures of invading pathogens.Finally, we examine the existing literature on zebrafish chitinases, and propose the use of zebrafish as a versatile model to complement the existing murine models.This could especially be of benefit to the exploration of the function of chitinases in infectious diseases using high-throughput approaches and pharmaceutical interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark Leiden University, Institute of Biology, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus