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Mesenchymal stem cells in rabbit meniscus and bone marrow exhibit a similar feature but a heterogeneous multi-differentiation potential: superiority of meniscus as a cell source for meniscus repair.

Ding Z, Huang H - BMC Musculoskelet Disord (2015)

Bottom Line: Finally, MMSCs always appeared a pronounced tendency to chondrogenic differentiation while BMSCs exhibited significantly greater osteogenic potential, whatever in vitro and in vivo.This study shows the similarities and differences between MMSCs and BMSCs for the first time.MMSCs are a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells in repairing meniscus defect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, The 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1 Jinling Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210001, China. dingzhe75@163.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The restoration of damaged meniscus has always been a challenge due to its limited healing capacity. Recently, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) provide a promising alternative to repair meniscal defects. However, BMSCs are not ideal chondroprogenitor cells for meniscus repair because they have a high propensity for cartilage hypertrophy and bone formation. Our hypothesis is that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in meniscus maintain specific traits distinct from others which may be more conducive to meniscus regeneration.

Methods: MSCs were isolated from bone marrow and menisci of the rabbits. The similarities and differences between BMSCs and MMSCs were investigated in vitro by a cell culture model, ex vivo by a rabbit meniscus defect model and in vivo by a nude rat implantation model using histochemistry, immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blotting.

Results: Our data showed that two types of MSCs have universal stem cell characteristics including clonogenicity, multi-potency and self-renewal capacity. They both express stem cell markers including SSEA-4, Nanog, nucleostemin, strol-1, CD44 and CD90. However, MMSCs differed from BMSCs. MMSC colonies were much smaller and grew more slowly than BMSC colonies. Moreover, fewer MMSCs expressed CD34 than BMSCs. Finally, MMSCs always appeared a pronounced tendency to chondrogenic differentiation while BMSCs exhibited significantly greater osteogenic potential, whatever in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions: This study shows the similarities and differences between MMSCs and BMSCs for the first time. MMSCs are a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells in repairing meniscus defect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histochemical staining of differentiated cells and semi-quantification of the extent of cell differentiation. Both BMSCs and MMSCs were able to differentiate into adipocytes (A, B), osteocytes (C, D), and chondrocytes (E, F), as shown by the accumulation of lipid droplets, proteoglycans and calcium deposits on cell surfaces. However, higher extent of osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs was evidenced by the most positive staining areas through Alizarin Red S assay. Conversely, much higher potential of chondrogenic differentiation in MMSCs was verified by Safranin O staining. Note that each experiment was repeated three times using five different donors. (P < 0.05) (Magnification of microscopy: 20×) (Bar: 50 μm).
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Fig5: Histochemical staining of differentiated cells and semi-quantification of the extent of cell differentiation. Both BMSCs and MMSCs were able to differentiate into adipocytes (A, B), osteocytes (C, D), and chondrocytes (E, F), as shown by the accumulation of lipid droplets, proteoglycans and calcium deposits on cell surfaces. However, higher extent of osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs was evidenced by the most positive staining areas through Alizarin Red S assay. Conversely, much higher potential of chondrogenic differentiation in MMSCs was verified by Safranin O staining. Note that each experiment was repeated three times using five different donors. (P < 0.05) (Magnification of microscopy: 20×) (Bar: 50 μm).

Mentions: After 21 days in adipogenic medium, both MMSCs and BMSCs exhibited numerous lipid droplets, an indicator of adipogenesis which can be detected by Oil Red O staining. Semiquantitative evaluation, by calculating stained area, showed that about 24% of MMSCs and 28% of BMSCs were differentiated into adipocytes, respectively (Figure 5A, B). Similar to this result, on the expression level of PPARγ, a gene marker of adipogenic lineage, MMSCs was akin to BMSCs (Figure 4).Figure 5


Mesenchymal stem cells in rabbit meniscus and bone marrow exhibit a similar feature but a heterogeneous multi-differentiation potential: superiority of meniscus as a cell source for meniscus repair.

Ding Z, Huang H - BMC Musculoskelet Disord (2015)

Histochemical staining of differentiated cells and semi-quantification of the extent of cell differentiation. Both BMSCs and MMSCs were able to differentiate into adipocytes (A, B), osteocytes (C, D), and chondrocytes (E, F), as shown by the accumulation of lipid droplets, proteoglycans and calcium deposits on cell surfaces. However, higher extent of osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs was evidenced by the most positive staining areas through Alizarin Red S assay. Conversely, much higher potential of chondrogenic differentiation in MMSCs was verified by Safranin O staining. Note that each experiment was repeated three times using five different donors. (P < 0.05) (Magnification of microscopy: 20×) (Bar: 50 μm).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4373281&req=5

Fig5: Histochemical staining of differentiated cells and semi-quantification of the extent of cell differentiation. Both BMSCs and MMSCs were able to differentiate into adipocytes (A, B), osteocytes (C, D), and chondrocytes (E, F), as shown by the accumulation of lipid droplets, proteoglycans and calcium deposits on cell surfaces. However, higher extent of osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs was evidenced by the most positive staining areas through Alizarin Red S assay. Conversely, much higher potential of chondrogenic differentiation in MMSCs was verified by Safranin O staining. Note that each experiment was repeated three times using five different donors. (P < 0.05) (Magnification of microscopy: 20×) (Bar: 50 μm).
Mentions: After 21 days in adipogenic medium, both MMSCs and BMSCs exhibited numerous lipid droplets, an indicator of adipogenesis which can be detected by Oil Red O staining. Semiquantitative evaluation, by calculating stained area, showed that about 24% of MMSCs and 28% of BMSCs were differentiated into adipocytes, respectively (Figure 5A, B). Similar to this result, on the expression level of PPARγ, a gene marker of adipogenic lineage, MMSCs was akin to BMSCs (Figure 4).Figure 5

Bottom Line: Finally, MMSCs always appeared a pronounced tendency to chondrogenic differentiation while BMSCs exhibited significantly greater osteogenic potential, whatever in vitro and in vivo.This study shows the similarities and differences between MMSCs and BMSCs for the first time.MMSCs are a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells in repairing meniscus defect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, The 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1 Jinling Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210001, China. dingzhe75@163.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The restoration of damaged meniscus has always been a challenge due to its limited healing capacity. Recently, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) provide a promising alternative to repair meniscal defects. However, BMSCs are not ideal chondroprogenitor cells for meniscus repair because they have a high propensity for cartilage hypertrophy and bone formation. Our hypothesis is that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in meniscus maintain specific traits distinct from others which may be more conducive to meniscus regeneration.

Methods: MSCs were isolated from bone marrow and menisci of the rabbits. The similarities and differences between BMSCs and MMSCs were investigated in vitro by a cell culture model, ex vivo by a rabbit meniscus defect model and in vivo by a nude rat implantation model using histochemistry, immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blotting.

Results: Our data showed that two types of MSCs have universal stem cell characteristics including clonogenicity, multi-potency and self-renewal capacity. They both express stem cell markers including SSEA-4, Nanog, nucleostemin, strol-1, CD44 and CD90. However, MMSCs differed from BMSCs. MMSC colonies were much smaller and grew more slowly than BMSC colonies. Moreover, fewer MMSCs expressed CD34 than BMSCs. Finally, MMSCs always appeared a pronounced tendency to chondrogenic differentiation while BMSCs exhibited significantly greater osteogenic potential, whatever in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions: This study shows the similarities and differences between MMSCs and BMSCs for the first time. MMSCs are a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells in repairing meniscus defect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus