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Mesenchymal stem cells in rabbit meniscus and bone marrow exhibit a similar feature but a heterogeneous multi-differentiation potential: superiority of meniscus as a cell source for meniscus repair.

Ding Z, Huang H - BMC Musculoskelet Disord (2015)

Bottom Line: Finally, MMSCs always appeared a pronounced tendency to chondrogenic differentiation while BMSCs exhibited significantly greater osteogenic potential, whatever in vitro and in vivo.This study shows the similarities and differences between MMSCs and BMSCs for the first time.MMSCs are a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells in repairing meniscus defect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, The 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1 Jinling Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210001, China. dingzhe75@163.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The restoration of damaged meniscus has always been a challenge due to its limited healing capacity. Recently, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) provide a promising alternative to repair meniscal defects. However, BMSCs are not ideal chondroprogenitor cells for meniscus repair because they have a high propensity for cartilage hypertrophy and bone formation. Our hypothesis is that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in meniscus maintain specific traits distinct from others which may be more conducive to meniscus regeneration.

Methods: MSCs were isolated from bone marrow and menisci of the rabbits. The similarities and differences between BMSCs and MMSCs were investigated in vitro by a cell culture model, ex vivo by a rabbit meniscus defect model and in vivo by a nude rat implantation model using histochemistry, immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blotting.

Results: Our data showed that two types of MSCs have universal stem cell characteristics including clonogenicity, multi-potency and self-renewal capacity. They both express stem cell markers including SSEA-4, Nanog, nucleostemin, strol-1, CD44 and CD90. However, MMSCs differed from BMSCs. MMSC colonies were much smaller and grew more slowly than BMSC colonies. Moreover, fewer MMSCs expressed CD34 than BMSCs. Finally, MMSCs always appeared a pronounced tendency to chondrogenic differentiation while BMSCs exhibited significantly greater osteogenic potential, whatever in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions: This study shows the similarities and differences between MMSCs and BMSCs for the first time. MMSCs are a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells in repairing meniscus defect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The qRT-PCR analysis of adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic marker genes. Much higher expression of chondrogenic gene markers including collagen type II and Sox9 were observed in MMSCs group (**P < 0.01). However, BMSCs expressed much higher level of osteogenic gene markers such as osteocalcin and Runx-2 (**P < 0.01) No great difference was found on expression of adipogenic gene marker. Note that the gene expression levels were normalized to GAPDH, and obtained from at least three independent experiments.
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Fig4: The qRT-PCR analysis of adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic marker genes. Much higher expression of chondrogenic gene markers including collagen type II and Sox9 were observed in MMSCs group (**P < 0.01). However, BMSCs expressed much higher level of osteogenic gene markers such as osteocalcin and Runx-2 (**P < 0.01) No great difference was found on expression of adipogenic gene marker. Note that the gene expression levels were normalized to GAPDH, and obtained from at least three independent experiments.

Mentions: To confirm whether MMSCs possess the established properties of stem cells, we examined the stem cell markers through immunochemistry staining. Over 80% positively stained cells were found for SSEA-4, Nanog and nucleostemin in both MMSCs and BMSCs groups (Figure 2). Furthermore, about 86% of MMSCs and 82% of BMSCs stained positively for STRO-1 (Figure 3E, F). In addition, more than 85% of cells from these two groups were found to be positively stained by CD44 and CD90 (Figure 3A-D), while lower 3% of BMSCs were positively stained by CD34 and only few MMSCs were found positive by CD34 (Figure 4G, H).Figure 2


Mesenchymal stem cells in rabbit meniscus and bone marrow exhibit a similar feature but a heterogeneous multi-differentiation potential: superiority of meniscus as a cell source for meniscus repair.

Ding Z, Huang H - BMC Musculoskelet Disord (2015)

The qRT-PCR analysis of adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic marker genes. Much higher expression of chondrogenic gene markers including collagen type II and Sox9 were observed in MMSCs group (**P < 0.01). However, BMSCs expressed much higher level of osteogenic gene markers such as osteocalcin and Runx-2 (**P < 0.01) No great difference was found on expression of adipogenic gene marker. Note that the gene expression levels were normalized to GAPDH, and obtained from at least three independent experiments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4373281&req=5

Fig4: The qRT-PCR analysis of adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic marker genes. Much higher expression of chondrogenic gene markers including collagen type II and Sox9 were observed in MMSCs group (**P < 0.01). However, BMSCs expressed much higher level of osteogenic gene markers such as osteocalcin and Runx-2 (**P < 0.01) No great difference was found on expression of adipogenic gene marker. Note that the gene expression levels were normalized to GAPDH, and obtained from at least three independent experiments.
Mentions: To confirm whether MMSCs possess the established properties of stem cells, we examined the stem cell markers through immunochemistry staining. Over 80% positively stained cells were found for SSEA-4, Nanog and nucleostemin in both MMSCs and BMSCs groups (Figure 2). Furthermore, about 86% of MMSCs and 82% of BMSCs stained positively for STRO-1 (Figure 3E, F). In addition, more than 85% of cells from these two groups were found to be positively stained by CD44 and CD90 (Figure 3A-D), while lower 3% of BMSCs were positively stained by CD34 and only few MMSCs were found positive by CD34 (Figure 4G, H).Figure 2

Bottom Line: Finally, MMSCs always appeared a pronounced tendency to chondrogenic differentiation while BMSCs exhibited significantly greater osteogenic potential, whatever in vitro and in vivo.This study shows the similarities and differences between MMSCs and BMSCs for the first time.MMSCs are a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells in repairing meniscus defect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, The 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1 Jinling Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210001, China. dingzhe75@163.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The restoration of damaged meniscus has always been a challenge due to its limited healing capacity. Recently, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) provide a promising alternative to repair meniscal defects. However, BMSCs are not ideal chondroprogenitor cells for meniscus repair because they have a high propensity for cartilage hypertrophy and bone formation. Our hypothesis is that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in meniscus maintain specific traits distinct from others which may be more conducive to meniscus regeneration.

Methods: MSCs were isolated from bone marrow and menisci of the rabbits. The similarities and differences between BMSCs and MMSCs were investigated in vitro by a cell culture model, ex vivo by a rabbit meniscus defect model and in vivo by a nude rat implantation model using histochemistry, immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blotting.

Results: Our data showed that two types of MSCs have universal stem cell characteristics including clonogenicity, multi-potency and self-renewal capacity. They both express stem cell markers including SSEA-4, Nanog, nucleostemin, strol-1, CD44 and CD90. However, MMSCs differed from BMSCs. MMSC colonies were much smaller and grew more slowly than BMSC colonies. Moreover, fewer MMSCs expressed CD34 than BMSCs. Finally, MMSCs always appeared a pronounced tendency to chondrogenic differentiation while BMSCs exhibited significantly greater osteogenic potential, whatever in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions: This study shows the similarities and differences between MMSCs and BMSCs for the first time. MMSCs are a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells in repairing meniscus defect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus