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A computerized tablet with visual feedback of hand position for functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Karimpoor M, Tam F, Strother SC, Fischer CE, Schweizer TA, Graham SJ - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: A real-time system was thus developed to provide VFHP and integrated with the tablet in an augmented reality display.The effectiveness of the system was initially tested in young healthy adults who performed various handwriting tasks in front of a computer display with and without VFHP.Quantitative analysis of the behavioral results indicated improved writing performance with VFHP.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graham Laboratory, Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Toronto, ON, Canada ; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine Toronto, ON, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Neuropsychological tests behavioral tasks that very commonly involve handwriting and drawing are widely used in the clinic to detect abnormal brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may be useful in increasing the specificity of such tests. However, performing complex pen-and-paper tests during fMRI involves engineering challenges. Previously, we developed an fMRI-compatible, computerized tablet system to address this issue. However, the tablet did not include visual feedback of hand position (VFHP), a human factors component that may be important for fMRI of certain patient populations. A real-time system was thus developed to provide VFHP and integrated with the tablet in an augmented reality display. The effectiveness of the system was initially tested in young healthy adults who performed various handwriting tasks in front of a computer display with and without VFHP. Pilot fMRI of writing tasks were performed by two representative individuals with and without VFHP. Quantitative analysis of the behavioral results indicated improved writing performance with VFHP. The pilot fMRI results suggest that writing with VFHP requires less neural resources compared to the without VFHP condition, to maintain similar behavior. Thus, the tablet system with VFHP is recommended for future fMRI studies involving patients with impaired brain function and where ecologically valid behavior is important.

No MeSH data available.


Visual stimuli for Experiment One, involving copying (A) a grocery list; (B) a phone number list; and (C) a paragraph. Tablet responses are shown for participant two.
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Figure 2: Visual stimuli for Experiment One, involving copying (A) a grocery list; (B) a phone number list; and (C) a paragraph. Tablet responses are shown for participant two.

Mentions: Nine volunteers (age: 20–35, 4 male, 5 female) participated in the first phase of testing (experiment one), which explored the effectiveness of VFHP during complex tablet interactions in the form of handwriting tasks. Following an approach similar to that of Werner et al. (2006), who developed a series of NP tests of handwriting tasks involving a digitizing tablet, three simple writing tasks were developed that are commonly used in everyday activities (Figures 2, 3). The tasks involved (a) copying a grocery list; (b) copying phone numbers; and (c) copying a paragraph. Each task was conducted in a set of trials. For the first two tasks, participants were required to copy four grocery items and two phone numbers, respectively. Visual stimuli were listed on the left side of the display screen, with a response box located on the right side next to the list for handwriting. Participants were required to signal that they had completed each trial and were ready to move to the next by using the stylus to touch within a small box labeled “Next Trial” at the bottom left corner of the display. The procedure was similar for paragraph copying except that the box for handwriting responses was located below the paragraph. For each task, a wait interval of 5 s was included between each trial, consisting of a white screen with a central black fixation cross. Each task was repeated four times.


A computerized tablet with visual feedback of hand position for functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Karimpoor M, Tam F, Strother SC, Fischer CE, Schweizer TA, Graham SJ - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Visual stimuli for Experiment One, involving copying (A) a grocery list; (B) a phone number list; and (C) a paragraph. Tablet responses are shown for participant two.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4373274&req=5

Figure 2: Visual stimuli for Experiment One, involving copying (A) a grocery list; (B) a phone number list; and (C) a paragraph. Tablet responses are shown for participant two.
Mentions: Nine volunteers (age: 20–35, 4 male, 5 female) participated in the first phase of testing (experiment one), which explored the effectiveness of VFHP during complex tablet interactions in the form of handwriting tasks. Following an approach similar to that of Werner et al. (2006), who developed a series of NP tests of handwriting tasks involving a digitizing tablet, three simple writing tasks were developed that are commonly used in everyday activities (Figures 2, 3). The tasks involved (a) copying a grocery list; (b) copying phone numbers; and (c) copying a paragraph. Each task was conducted in a set of trials. For the first two tasks, participants were required to copy four grocery items and two phone numbers, respectively. Visual stimuli were listed on the left side of the display screen, with a response box located on the right side next to the list for handwriting. Participants were required to signal that they had completed each trial and were ready to move to the next by using the stylus to touch within a small box labeled “Next Trial” at the bottom left corner of the display. The procedure was similar for paragraph copying except that the box for handwriting responses was located below the paragraph. For each task, a wait interval of 5 s was included between each trial, consisting of a white screen with a central black fixation cross. Each task was repeated four times.

Bottom Line: A real-time system was thus developed to provide VFHP and integrated with the tablet in an augmented reality display.The effectiveness of the system was initially tested in young healthy adults who performed various handwriting tasks in front of a computer display with and without VFHP.Quantitative analysis of the behavioral results indicated improved writing performance with VFHP.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graham Laboratory, Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Toronto, ON, Canada ; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine Toronto, ON, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Neuropsychological tests behavioral tasks that very commonly involve handwriting and drawing are widely used in the clinic to detect abnormal brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may be useful in increasing the specificity of such tests. However, performing complex pen-and-paper tests during fMRI involves engineering challenges. Previously, we developed an fMRI-compatible, computerized tablet system to address this issue. However, the tablet did not include visual feedback of hand position (VFHP), a human factors component that may be important for fMRI of certain patient populations. A real-time system was thus developed to provide VFHP and integrated with the tablet in an augmented reality display. The effectiveness of the system was initially tested in young healthy adults who performed various handwriting tasks in front of a computer display with and without VFHP. Pilot fMRI of writing tasks were performed by two representative individuals with and without VFHP. Quantitative analysis of the behavioral results indicated improved writing performance with VFHP. The pilot fMRI results suggest that writing with VFHP requires less neural resources compared to the without VFHP condition, to maintain similar behavior. Thus, the tablet system with VFHP is recommended for future fMRI studies involving patients with impaired brain function and where ecologically valid behavior is important.

No MeSH data available.