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Neuroanatomical substrates for the volitional regulation of heart rate.

Jones CL, Minati L, Nagai Y, Medford N, Harrison NA, Gray M, Ward J, Critchley HD - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: In contrast, activation of ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices occurred when attempting to decrease heart rate.Biofeedback enhanced activity within occipito-temporal cortices, but there was no significant interaction with task conditions.Activity in regions including pregenual anterior cingulate and ventral striatum reflected the magnitude of successful task performance, which was negatively related to subclinical anxiety symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex Brighton, UK ; Department of Psychiatry and Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, University of Sussex Brighton, UK.

ABSTRACT
The control of physiological arousal can assist in the regulation of emotional state. A subset cortical and subcortical brain regions are implicated in autonomic control of bodily arousal during emotional behaviors. Here, we combined human functional neuroimaging with autonomic monitoring to identify neural mechanisms that support the volitional regulation of heart rate, a process that may be assisted by visual feedback. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 15 healthy adults performed an experimental task in which they were prompted voluntarily to increase or decrease cardiovascular arousal (heart rate) during true, false, or absent visual feedback. Participants achieved appropriate changes in heart rate, without significant modulation of respiratory rate, and were overall not influenced by the presence of visual feedback. Increased activity in right amygdala, striatum and brainstem occurred when participants attempted to increase heart rate. In contrast, activation of ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices occurred when attempting to decrease heart rate. Biofeedback enhanced activity within occipito-temporal cortices, but there was no significant interaction with task conditions. Activity in regions including pregenual anterior cingulate and ventral striatum reflected the magnitude of successful task performance, which was negatively related to subclinical anxiety symptoms. Measured changes in respiration correlated with posterior insula activation and heart rate, at a more lenient threshold, change correlated with insula, caudate, and midbrain activity. Our findings highlight a set of brain regions, notably ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, supporting volitional control of cardiovascular arousal. These data are relevant to understanding neural substrates supporting interaction between intentional and interoceptive states related to anxiety, with implications for biofeedback interventions, e.g., real-time fMRI, that target emotional regulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Heart rate fluctuations over the scanning duration, peaks correspond to increased heart rate/arousal blocks, troughs correspond to decreased heart rate/relaxation blocks. (B) Breathing rate fluctuations over time. Arrow indicates passage of time. Data illustrated from a representative single participant.
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Figure 2: (A) Heart rate fluctuations over the scanning duration, peaks correspond to increased heart rate/arousal blocks, troughs correspond to decreased heart rate/relaxation blocks. (B) Breathing rate fluctuations over time. Arrow indicates passage of time. Data illustrated from a representative single participant.

Mentions: Each participant was monitored during fMRI using pulse oximetry (Nonin 8600FO, Nonin Inc., Plymouth, MN, USA) with the sensor taped to the middle finger of the left hand. The fibreoptic cable was passed through the guide tube from the Faraday cage of the MRI scanner room to the control room where the analog outputs of the apparatus were fed via an A/D converter (CED1401) to a computer running Spike 2 Software (Cambridge Electronic Design, Cambridge, UK) and to a stimulus-control computer running Matlab (MathWorks, Nantick, MA, USA). The biofeedback components of the tasks (Figure 1) were run on this computer using Matlab scripts developed in-house: the signal was low-pass filtered at 1 Hz and processed with a peak-picking algorithm yielding beat-by-beat heart rate measurements. The resulting signal was epoched in the [-0.5,5] s peristimulus range and averaged across trials. Respiratory motor function was recorded within the MRI environment via respiratory bands, a technique referred to as remote pressure sensor respiratory plethysmography (Caldiroli and Minati, 2007). Again the signal was low-pass filtered at 1 Hz and processed with a peak-picking algorithm yielding breathing rate measurements (Figure 2).


Neuroanatomical substrates for the volitional regulation of heart rate.

Jones CL, Minati L, Nagai Y, Medford N, Harrison NA, Gray M, Ward J, Critchley HD - Front Psychol (2015)

(A) Heart rate fluctuations over the scanning duration, peaks correspond to increased heart rate/arousal blocks, troughs correspond to decreased heart rate/relaxation blocks. (B) Breathing rate fluctuations over time. Arrow indicates passage of time. Data illustrated from a representative single participant.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4373272&req=5

Figure 2: (A) Heart rate fluctuations over the scanning duration, peaks correspond to increased heart rate/arousal blocks, troughs correspond to decreased heart rate/relaxation blocks. (B) Breathing rate fluctuations over time. Arrow indicates passage of time. Data illustrated from a representative single participant.
Mentions: Each participant was monitored during fMRI using pulse oximetry (Nonin 8600FO, Nonin Inc., Plymouth, MN, USA) with the sensor taped to the middle finger of the left hand. The fibreoptic cable was passed through the guide tube from the Faraday cage of the MRI scanner room to the control room where the analog outputs of the apparatus were fed via an A/D converter (CED1401) to a computer running Spike 2 Software (Cambridge Electronic Design, Cambridge, UK) and to a stimulus-control computer running Matlab (MathWorks, Nantick, MA, USA). The biofeedback components of the tasks (Figure 1) were run on this computer using Matlab scripts developed in-house: the signal was low-pass filtered at 1 Hz and processed with a peak-picking algorithm yielding beat-by-beat heart rate measurements. The resulting signal was epoched in the [-0.5,5] s peristimulus range and averaged across trials. Respiratory motor function was recorded within the MRI environment via respiratory bands, a technique referred to as remote pressure sensor respiratory plethysmography (Caldiroli and Minati, 2007). Again the signal was low-pass filtered at 1 Hz and processed with a peak-picking algorithm yielding breathing rate measurements (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: In contrast, activation of ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices occurred when attempting to decrease heart rate.Biofeedback enhanced activity within occipito-temporal cortices, but there was no significant interaction with task conditions.Activity in regions including pregenual anterior cingulate and ventral striatum reflected the magnitude of successful task performance, which was negatively related to subclinical anxiety symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex Brighton, UK ; Department of Psychiatry and Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, University of Sussex Brighton, UK.

ABSTRACT
The control of physiological arousal can assist in the regulation of emotional state. A subset cortical and subcortical brain regions are implicated in autonomic control of bodily arousal during emotional behaviors. Here, we combined human functional neuroimaging with autonomic monitoring to identify neural mechanisms that support the volitional regulation of heart rate, a process that may be assisted by visual feedback. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 15 healthy adults performed an experimental task in which they were prompted voluntarily to increase or decrease cardiovascular arousal (heart rate) during true, false, or absent visual feedback. Participants achieved appropriate changes in heart rate, without significant modulation of respiratory rate, and were overall not influenced by the presence of visual feedback. Increased activity in right amygdala, striatum and brainstem occurred when participants attempted to increase heart rate. In contrast, activation of ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices occurred when attempting to decrease heart rate. Biofeedback enhanced activity within occipito-temporal cortices, but there was no significant interaction with task conditions. Activity in regions including pregenual anterior cingulate and ventral striatum reflected the magnitude of successful task performance, which was negatively related to subclinical anxiety symptoms. Measured changes in respiration correlated with posterior insula activation and heart rate, at a more lenient threshold, change correlated with insula, caudate, and midbrain activity. Our findings highlight a set of brain regions, notably ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, supporting volitional control of cardiovascular arousal. These data are relevant to understanding neural substrates supporting interaction between intentional and interoceptive states related to anxiety, with implications for biofeedback interventions, e.g., real-time fMRI, that target emotional regulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus