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Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds.

Fletcher PD, Nicholas JM, Shakespeare TJ, Downey LE, Golden HL, Agustus JL, Clark CN, Mummery CJ, Schott JM, Crutch SJ, Warren JD - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching ("looming") or less salient withdrawing sounds.Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes.Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dementia Research Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching ("looming") or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean alerting ratings (upper panel) and maximal pupil responses (lower panel) for the experimental groups for approaching (intensity increasing, Iup, dark gray) and withdrawing (intensity decreasing, Idown, light gray) sound conditions. Alerting ratings are on a Likert scale (1, not all alerting; 10, highly alerting) and pupil responses are shown as log percentage maximal area change from baseline (Pupilmax). Mean values are shown (error bars signify 1 standard error). Key: a, strong trend (p < 0.07) to greater alerting ratings for Iup than Idown sounds; b, significantly greater (p < 0.05) pupil responses to Iup than Idown sounds; c, differential response to Iup vs. Idown sounds significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy control and SD groups; d, differential response to Iup vs. Idown sounds significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy control group; e, overall pupil responses significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy older controls and sporadic bvFTD subgroup; AD, Alzheimer's disease; control, healthy older control group; C9orf72, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with C9orf72 gene mutations; MAPT, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with MAPT gene mutations; PNFA, progressive nonfluent aphasia; SD, semantic dementia; sp-FTD, sporadic behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (no identified genetic mutation).
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Figure 1: Mean alerting ratings (upper panel) and maximal pupil responses (lower panel) for the experimental groups for approaching (intensity increasing, Iup, dark gray) and withdrawing (intensity decreasing, Idown, light gray) sound conditions. Alerting ratings are on a Likert scale (1, not all alerting; 10, highly alerting) and pupil responses are shown as log percentage maximal area change from baseline (Pupilmax). Mean values are shown (error bars signify 1 standard error). Key: a, strong trend (p < 0.07) to greater alerting ratings for Iup than Idown sounds; b, significantly greater (p < 0.05) pupil responses to Iup than Idown sounds; c, differential response to Iup vs. Idown sounds significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy control and SD groups; d, differential response to Iup vs. Idown sounds significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy control group; e, overall pupil responses significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy older controls and sporadic bvFTD subgroup; AD, Alzheimer's disease; control, healthy older control group; C9orf72, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with C9orf72 gene mutations; MAPT, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with MAPT gene mutations; PNFA, progressive nonfluent aphasia; SD, semantic dementia; sp-FTD, sporadic behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (no identified genetic mutation).

Mentions: Behavioral alerting rating and pupil response data are summarized in Figure 1 and tabulated in Supplementary Table S2.


Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds.

Fletcher PD, Nicholas JM, Shakespeare TJ, Downey LE, Golden HL, Agustus JL, Clark CN, Mummery CJ, Schott JM, Crutch SJ, Warren JD - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

Mean alerting ratings (upper panel) and maximal pupil responses (lower panel) for the experimental groups for approaching (intensity increasing, Iup, dark gray) and withdrawing (intensity decreasing, Idown, light gray) sound conditions. Alerting ratings are on a Likert scale (1, not all alerting; 10, highly alerting) and pupil responses are shown as log percentage maximal area change from baseline (Pupilmax). Mean values are shown (error bars signify 1 standard error). Key: a, strong trend (p < 0.07) to greater alerting ratings for Iup than Idown sounds; b, significantly greater (p < 0.05) pupil responses to Iup than Idown sounds; c, differential response to Iup vs. Idown sounds significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy control and SD groups; d, differential response to Iup vs. Idown sounds significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy control group; e, overall pupil responses significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy older controls and sporadic bvFTD subgroup; AD, Alzheimer's disease; control, healthy older control group; C9orf72, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with C9orf72 gene mutations; MAPT, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with MAPT gene mutations; PNFA, progressive nonfluent aphasia; SD, semantic dementia; sp-FTD, sporadic behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (no identified genetic mutation).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4373266&req=5

Figure 1: Mean alerting ratings (upper panel) and maximal pupil responses (lower panel) for the experimental groups for approaching (intensity increasing, Iup, dark gray) and withdrawing (intensity decreasing, Idown, light gray) sound conditions. Alerting ratings are on a Likert scale (1, not all alerting; 10, highly alerting) and pupil responses are shown as log percentage maximal area change from baseline (Pupilmax). Mean values are shown (error bars signify 1 standard error). Key: a, strong trend (p < 0.07) to greater alerting ratings for Iup than Idown sounds; b, significantly greater (p < 0.05) pupil responses to Iup than Idown sounds; c, differential response to Iup vs. Idown sounds significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy control and SD groups; d, differential response to Iup vs. Idown sounds significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy control group; e, overall pupil responses significantly reduced (p < 0.05) relative to healthy older controls and sporadic bvFTD subgroup; AD, Alzheimer's disease; control, healthy older control group; C9orf72, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with C9orf72 gene mutations; MAPT, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with MAPT gene mutations; PNFA, progressive nonfluent aphasia; SD, semantic dementia; sp-FTD, sporadic behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (no identified genetic mutation).
Mentions: Behavioral alerting rating and pupil response data are summarized in Figure 1 and tabulated in Supplementary Table S2.

Bottom Line: We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching ("looming") or less salient withdrawing sounds.Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes.Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dementia Research Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching ("looming") or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus