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Nitrogen uptake and nitrogen fertilizer recovery in old and modern wheat genotypes grown in the presence or absence of interspecific competition.

Ruisi P, Frangipane B, Amato G, Frenda AS, Plaia A, Giambalvo D, Saia S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: A field experiment, a split-plot design with four replications, was conducted during two consecutive growing seasons in a typical Mediterranean environment.The presence of competition, compared to competitor-free conditions, resulted in reductions in grain yield (49%), total N uptake (29%), and an (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (32%) that were on average markedly higher in modern varieties than in old ones.Both biomass and grain reductions were strongly related to the biomass of the competitor (correlation coefficients > 0.95), which ranged from 135 to 573 g m(-2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli Studi di Palermo Palermo, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Choosing genotypes with a high capacity for taking up nitrogen (N) from the soil and the ability to efficiently compete with weeds for this nutrient is essential to increasing the sustainability of cropping systems that are less dependent on auxiliary inputs. This research aimed to verify whether differences exist in N uptake and N fertilizer recovery capacity among wheat genotypes and, if so, whether these differences are related to a different competitive ability against weeds of wheat genotypes. To this end, 12 genotypes, varying widely in morphological traits and year of release, were grown in the presence or absence of interspecific competition (using Avena sativa L. as a surrogate weed). Isotopic tracer (15)N was used to measure the fertilizer N uptake efficiencies of the wheat genotypes and weed. A field experiment, a split-plot design with four replications, was conducted during two consecutive growing seasons in a typical Mediterranean environment. In the absence of interspecific competition, few differences in either total N uptake (range: 98-112 kg N ha(-1)) or the (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (range: 30.0-36.7%) were observed among the wheat genotypes. The presence of competition, compared to competitor-free conditions, resulted in reductions in grain yield (49%), total N uptake (29%), and an (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (32%) that were on average markedly higher in modern varieties than in old ones. Both biomass and grain reductions were strongly related to the biomass of the competitor (correlation coefficients > 0.95), which ranged from 135 to 573 g m(-2). Variations in both grain and biomass yield due to interspecific competition were significantly correlated with percentage of soil cover and leaf area at tillering, plant height at heading, and total N uptake, thus highlighting that the ability to take up N from the soil played a certain role in determining the different competitive abilities against weed of the genotypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The relationship between weed biomass and percent variation in biomass of wheat genotypes (red circle, “old” genotypes; gray circles, “modern” varieties) in the presence of interspecific competition with respect to the absence of competition at the end of tillering (A) and at heading (B). 1, Biancuccia; 2, Maiorcone; 3, Realforte; 4, Russello; 5, Scorsonera; 6, Cappelli; 7, Capeiti; 8, Creso; 9, Simeto; 10, Valbelice; 11, Iride; 12, Claudio.
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Figure 2: The relationship between weed biomass and percent variation in biomass of wheat genotypes (red circle, “old” genotypes; gray circles, “modern” varieties) in the presence of interspecific competition with respect to the absence of competition at the end of tillering (A) and at heading (B). 1, Biancuccia; 2, Maiorcone; 3, Realforte; 4, Russello; 5, Scorsonera; 6, Cappelli; 7, Capeiti; 8, Creso; 9, Simeto; 10, Valbelice; 11, Iride; 12, Claudio.

Mentions: Significant differences among wheat genotypes were observed in the percentage of soil cover, leaf habit, and leaf area index (LAI), with higher values observed in the old genotypes compared to the modern varieties (Table 2). However, no differences among genotypes were detected in the biomass production per unit area. Interspecific competition significantly affected all traits with the exception of leaf habit. On average, wheat biomass production per unit area decreased by 22% when a competitor was present, but varied responses were observed among genotypes. The magnitude of the decrease was related to the biomass production of the competitor, which was markedly higher in the modern varieties compared to the old genotypes (Figure 2A). The effects of interspecific competition on plant height varied by wheat genotype.


Nitrogen uptake and nitrogen fertilizer recovery in old and modern wheat genotypes grown in the presence or absence of interspecific competition.

Ruisi P, Frangipane B, Amato G, Frenda AS, Plaia A, Giambalvo D, Saia S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

The relationship between weed biomass and percent variation in biomass of wheat genotypes (red circle, “old” genotypes; gray circles, “modern” varieties) in the presence of interspecific competition with respect to the absence of competition at the end of tillering (A) and at heading (B). 1, Biancuccia; 2, Maiorcone; 3, Realforte; 4, Russello; 5, Scorsonera; 6, Cappelli; 7, Capeiti; 8, Creso; 9, Simeto; 10, Valbelice; 11, Iride; 12, Claudio.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4373253&req=5

Figure 2: The relationship between weed biomass and percent variation in biomass of wheat genotypes (red circle, “old” genotypes; gray circles, “modern” varieties) in the presence of interspecific competition with respect to the absence of competition at the end of tillering (A) and at heading (B). 1, Biancuccia; 2, Maiorcone; 3, Realforte; 4, Russello; 5, Scorsonera; 6, Cappelli; 7, Capeiti; 8, Creso; 9, Simeto; 10, Valbelice; 11, Iride; 12, Claudio.
Mentions: Significant differences among wheat genotypes were observed in the percentage of soil cover, leaf habit, and leaf area index (LAI), with higher values observed in the old genotypes compared to the modern varieties (Table 2). However, no differences among genotypes were detected in the biomass production per unit area. Interspecific competition significantly affected all traits with the exception of leaf habit. On average, wheat biomass production per unit area decreased by 22% when a competitor was present, but varied responses were observed among genotypes. The magnitude of the decrease was related to the biomass production of the competitor, which was markedly higher in the modern varieties compared to the old genotypes (Figure 2A). The effects of interspecific competition on plant height varied by wheat genotype.

Bottom Line: A field experiment, a split-plot design with four replications, was conducted during two consecutive growing seasons in a typical Mediterranean environment.The presence of competition, compared to competitor-free conditions, resulted in reductions in grain yield (49%), total N uptake (29%), and an (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (32%) that were on average markedly higher in modern varieties than in old ones.Both biomass and grain reductions were strongly related to the biomass of the competitor (correlation coefficients > 0.95), which ranged from 135 to 573 g m(-2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli Studi di Palermo Palermo, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Choosing genotypes with a high capacity for taking up nitrogen (N) from the soil and the ability to efficiently compete with weeds for this nutrient is essential to increasing the sustainability of cropping systems that are less dependent on auxiliary inputs. This research aimed to verify whether differences exist in N uptake and N fertilizer recovery capacity among wheat genotypes and, if so, whether these differences are related to a different competitive ability against weeds of wheat genotypes. To this end, 12 genotypes, varying widely in morphological traits and year of release, were grown in the presence or absence of interspecific competition (using Avena sativa L. as a surrogate weed). Isotopic tracer (15)N was used to measure the fertilizer N uptake efficiencies of the wheat genotypes and weed. A field experiment, a split-plot design with four replications, was conducted during two consecutive growing seasons in a typical Mediterranean environment. In the absence of interspecific competition, few differences in either total N uptake (range: 98-112 kg N ha(-1)) or the (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (range: 30.0-36.7%) were observed among the wheat genotypes. The presence of competition, compared to competitor-free conditions, resulted in reductions in grain yield (49%), total N uptake (29%), and an (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (32%) that were on average markedly higher in modern varieties than in old ones. Both biomass and grain reductions were strongly related to the biomass of the competitor (correlation coefficients > 0.95), which ranged from 135 to 573 g m(-2). Variations in both grain and biomass yield due to interspecific competition were significantly correlated with percentage of soil cover and leaf area at tillering, plant height at heading, and total N uptake, thus highlighting that the ability to take up N from the soil played a certain role in determining the different competitive abilities against weed of the genotypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus