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Nitrogen uptake and nitrogen fertilizer recovery in old and modern wheat genotypes grown in the presence or absence of interspecific competition.

Ruisi P, Frangipane B, Amato G, Frenda AS, Plaia A, Giambalvo D, Saia S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: A field experiment, a split-plot design with four replications, was conducted during two consecutive growing seasons in a typical Mediterranean environment.The presence of competition, compared to competitor-free conditions, resulted in reductions in grain yield (49%), total N uptake (29%), and an (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (32%) that were on average markedly higher in modern varieties than in old ones.Both biomass and grain reductions were strongly related to the biomass of the competitor (correlation coefficients > 0.95), which ranged from 135 to 573 g m(-2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli Studi di Palermo Palermo, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Choosing genotypes with a high capacity for taking up nitrogen (N) from the soil and the ability to efficiently compete with weeds for this nutrient is essential to increasing the sustainability of cropping systems that are less dependent on auxiliary inputs. This research aimed to verify whether differences exist in N uptake and N fertilizer recovery capacity among wheat genotypes and, if so, whether these differences are related to a different competitive ability against weeds of wheat genotypes. To this end, 12 genotypes, varying widely in morphological traits and year of release, were grown in the presence or absence of interspecific competition (using Avena sativa L. as a surrogate weed). Isotopic tracer (15)N was used to measure the fertilizer N uptake efficiencies of the wheat genotypes and weed. A field experiment, a split-plot design with four replications, was conducted during two consecutive growing seasons in a typical Mediterranean environment. In the absence of interspecific competition, few differences in either total N uptake (range: 98-112 kg N ha(-1)) or the (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (range: 30.0-36.7%) were observed among the wheat genotypes. The presence of competition, compared to competitor-free conditions, resulted in reductions in grain yield (49%), total N uptake (29%), and an (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (32%) that were on average markedly higher in modern varieties than in old ones. Both biomass and grain reductions were strongly related to the biomass of the competitor (correlation coefficients > 0.95), which ranged from 135 to 573 g m(-2). Variations in both grain and biomass yield due to interspecific competition were significantly correlated with percentage of soil cover and leaf area at tillering, plant height at heading, and total N uptake, thus highlighting that the ability to take up N from the soil played a certain role in determining the different competitive abilities against weed of the genotypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Accumulated rainfall. (A) 10-day mean air temperature (B) at the experimental site during the two growing seasons (2008–2009 and 2009–2010); 30-year average 10-day temperatures and accumulated rainfall are also included.
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Figure 1: Accumulated rainfall. (A) 10-day mean air temperature (B) at the experimental site during the two growing seasons (2008–2009 and 2009–2010); 30-year average 10-day temperatures and accumulated rainfall are also included.

Mentions: The weather conditions during the experimental period are shown in Figure 1. Total rainfall in 2008–09 was 715 mm, 23% higher than the long-term average for the area. About 400 mm of rainfall was recorded during the winter. Although this rainfall resulted in excessive water in the soil, it had no apparent effect on plant density or root disease. The mean monthly temperature during the experimental period was similar to the normal mean temperature. In 2009–10, total rainfall was 810 mm (39% higher than the long-term average for the area), concentrated mostly during the autumn–winter period (September–February; 81%). The mean monthly temperature was higher than average, particularly during winter and spring.


Nitrogen uptake and nitrogen fertilizer recovery in old and modern wheat genotypes grown in the presence or absence of interspecific competition.

Ruisi P, Frangipane B, Amato G, Frenda AS, Plaia A, Giambalvo D, Saia S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Accumulated rainfall. (A) 10-day mean air temperature (B) at the experimental site during the two growing seasons (2008–2009 and 2009–2010); 30-year average 10-day temperatures and accumulated rainfall are also included.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4373253&req=5

Figure 1: Accumulated rainfall. (A) 10-day mean air temperature (B) at the experimental site during the two growing seasons (2008–2009 and 2009–2010); 30-year average 10-day temperatures and accumulated rainfall are also included.
Mentions: The weather conditions during the experimental period are shown in Figure 1. Total rainfall in 2008–09 was 715 mm, 23% higher than the long-term average for the area. About 400 mm of rainfall was recorded during the winter. Although this rainfall resulted in excessive water in the soil, it had no apparent effect on plant density or root disease. The mean monthly temperature during the experimental period was similar to the normal mean temperature. In 2009–10, total rainfall was 810 mm (39% higher than the long-term average for the area), concentrated mostly during the autumn–winter period (September–February; 81%). The mean monthly temperature was higher than average, particularly during winter and spring.

Bottom Line: A field experiment, a split-plot design with four replications, was conducted during two consecutive growing seasons in a typical Mediterranean environment.The presence of competition, compared to competitor-free conditions, resulted in reductions in grain yield (49%), total N uptake (29%), and an (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (32%) that were on average markedly higher in modern varieties than in old ones.Both biomass and grain reductions were strongly related to the biomass of the competitor (correlation coefficients > 0.95), which ranged from 135 to 573 g m(-2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli Studi di Palermo Palermo, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Choosing genotypes with a high capacity for taking up nitrogen (N) from the soil and the ability to efficiently compete with weeds for this nutrient is essential to increasing the sustainability of cropping systems that are less dependent on auxiliary inputs. This research aimed to verify whether differences exist in N uptake and N fertilizer recovery capacity among wheat genotypes and, if so, whether these differences are related to a different competitive ability against weeds of wheat genotypes. To this end, 12 genotypes, varying widely in morphological traits and year of release, were grown in the presence or absence of interspecific competition (using Avena sativa L. as a surrogate weed). Isotopic tracer (15)N was used to measure the fertilizer N uptake efficiencies of the wheat genotypes and weed. A field experiment, a split-plot design with four replications, was conducted during two consecutive growing seasons in a typical Mediterranean environment. In the absence of interspecific competition, few differences in either total N uptake (range: 98-112 kg N ha(-1)) or the (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (range: 30.0-36.7%) were observed among the wheat genotypes. The presence of competition, compared to competitor-free conditions, resulted in reductions in grain yield (49%), total N uptake (29%), and an (15)N fertilizer recovery fraction (32%) that were on average markedly higher in modern varieties than in old ones. Both biomass and grain reductions were strongly related to the biomass of the competitor (correlation coefficients > 0.95), which ranged from 135 to 573 g m(-2). Variations in both grain and biomass yield due to interspecific competition were significantly correlated with percentage of soil cover and leaf area at tillering, plant height at heading, and total N uptake, thus highlighting that the ability to take up N from the soil played a certain role in determining the different competitive abilities against weed of the genotypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus