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A superficial hyperechoic band in human articular cartilage on ultrasonography with histological correlation: preliminary observations.

Han TS, Kwack KS, Park S, Min BH, Yoon SH, Lee HY, Lee KB - Ultrasonography (2014)

Bottom Line: Step 2 showed that the SHEB correlated significantly better with the topographical variation in stainability in SO staining, indicating the GAG distribution, than with MT staining, indicating the collagen distribution (P<0.05, kappa=0.722).The SHEB that is frequently seen in human articular cartilage on high-resolution US correlated better with variations in SO staining than with variations in MT staining.Thus, we suggest that a SHEB is predominantly related to changes in GAG.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea ; Musculoskeletal Imaging Laboratory, Ajou University Medical Center, Suwon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To demonstrate the superficial hyperechoic band (SHEB) in articular cartilage by using ultrasonography (US) and to assess its correlation with histological images.

Methods: In total, 47 regions of interest (ROIs) were analyzed from six tibial osteochondral specimens (OCSs) that were obtained after total knee arthroplasty. Ultrasonograms were obtained for each OCS. Then, matching histological sections from all specimens were obtained for comparison with the ultrasonograms. Two types of histological staining were used: Safranin-O stain (SO) to identify glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and Masson's trichrome stain (MT) to identify collagen. In step 1, two observers evaluated whether there was an SHEB in each ROI. In step 2, the two observers evaluated which histological staining method correlated better with the SHEB by using the ImageJ software.

Results: In step 1 of the analysis, 20 out of 47 ROIs showed an SHEB (42.6%, kappa=0.579). Step 2 showed that the SHEB correlated significantly better with the topographical variation in stainability in SO staining, indicating the GAG distribution, than with MT staining, indicating the collagen distribution (P<0.05, kappa=0.722).

Conclusion: The SHEB that is frequently seen in human articular cartilage on high-resolution US correlated better with variations in SO staining than with variations in MT staining. Thus, we suggest that a SHEB is predominantly related to changes in GAG. Identifying an SHEB by US is a promising method for assessing the thickness of articular cartilage or for monitoring early osteoarthritis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

An osteochondral specimen from a 56-year-old female patient who underwent total knee arthroplasty.A, B. The sonogram (A) and color-coded sonogram (B) show a superficial hyperechoic band (SHEB) at the articular cartilage. C-F. The sonogram and histological images are matched: Safranin-O stain (SO) (C), SOR (D), Masson’s trichrome stain (MT) (E), and MTB(F). The SOR image (D) shows glycosaminoglycan depletion at the superficial layer of the articular cartilage. G. A vertical profile plot shows the pixel intensities of each region of interest (ROI) along the depth of articular cartilage: red curve (pixel intensity of ROI on SOR), black curve (pixel intensity of ROI on sonogram), and blue curve (pixel intensity of ROI on MTB). H. The SHEB is visualized as an elevated bright band on the threedimensional surface plot, which is reconstructed from the pixel intensities of the sonogram.
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f3-usg-14047: An osteochondral specimen from a 56-year-old female patient who underwent total knee arthroplasty.A, B. The sonogram (A) and color-coded sonogram (B) show a superficial hyperechoic band (SHEB) at the articular cartilage. C-F. The sonogram and histological images are matched: Safranin-O stain (SO) (C), SOR (D), Masson’s trichrome stain (MT) (E), and MTB(F). The SOR image (D) shows glycosaminoglycan depletion at the superficial layer of the articular cartilage. G. A vertical profile plot shows the pixel intensities of each region of interest (ROI) along the depth of articular cartilage: red curve (pixel intensity of ROI on SOR), black curve (pixel intensity of ROI on sonogram), and blue curve (pixel intensity of ROI on MTB). H. The SHEB is visualized as an elevated bright band on the threedimensional surface plot, which is reconstructed from the pixel intensities of the sonogram.

Mentions: The specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and decalcified in 10% formic acid. After decalcification, the specimens were sectioned through the middle of the lateral tibial condyle in the true sagittal plane, corresponding to the sagittal plane used for US imaging. The location of the histological section was chosen using both the previously made markings and measurements from anatomical and pathological landmarks, such as the lateral margin of the tibial plateau, the tibial spine, and osteophytes [12,13]. The tissue was subsequently embedded in paraffin wax, and 4-μm sections were made using a microtome (RM2255, Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany). Two sections of each lateral tibial condyle were stained with both Safranin-O (SO) and Masson’s trichrome (MT) stain in pairs (Figs. 2C, 2E, 3C, 3E). SO staining was used to identify glycosaminoglycans (GAG), a major component of proteoglycans (PG), and MT staining was used to identify collagen [14-18].


A superficial hyperechoic band in human articular cartilage on ultrasonography with histological correlation: preliminary observations.

Han TS, Kwack KS, Park S, Min BH, Yoon SH, Lee HY, Lee KB - Ultrasonography (2014)

An osteochondral specimen from a 56-year-old female patient who underwent total knee arthroplasty.A, B. The sonogram (A) and color-coded sonogram (B) show a superficial hyperechoic band (SHEB) at the articular cartilage. C-F. The sonogram and histological images are matched: Safranin-O stain (SO) (C), SOR (D), Masson’s trichrome stain (MT) (E), and MTB(F). The SOR image (D) shows glycosaminoglycan depletion at the superficial layer of the articular cartilage. G. A vertical profile plot shows the pixel intensities of each region of interest (ROI) along the depth of articular cartilage: red curve (pixel intensity of ROI on SOR), black curve (pixel intensity of ROI on sonogram), and blue curve (pixel intensity of ROI on MTB). H. The SHEB is visualized as an elevated bright band on the threedimensional surface plot, which is reconstructed from the pixel intensities of the sonogram.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4372710&req=5

f3-usg-14047: An osteochondral specimen from a 56-year-old female patient who underwent total knee arthroplasty.A, B. The sonogram (A) and color-coded sonogram (B) show a superficial hyperechoic band (SHEB) at the articular cartilage. C-F. The sonogram and histological images are matched: Safranin-O stain (SO) (C), SOR (D), Masson’s trichrome stain (MT) (E), and MTB(F). The SOR image (D) shows glycosaminoglycan depletion at the superficial layer of the articular cartilage. G. A vertical profile plot shows the pixel intensities of each region of interest (ROI) along the depth of articular cartilage: red curve (pixel intensity of ROI on SOR), black curve (pixel intensity of ROI on sonogram), and blue curve (pixel intensity of ROI on MTB). H. The SHEB is visualized as an elevated bright band on the threedimensional surface plot, which is reconstructed from the pixel intensities of the sonogram.
Mentions: The specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and decalcified in 10% formic acid. After decalcification, the specimens were sectioned through the middle of the lateral tibial condyle in the true sagittal plane, corresponding to the sagittal plane used for US imaging. The location of the histological section was chosen using both the previously made markings and measurements from anatomical and pathological landmarks, such as the lateral margin of the tibial plateau, the tibial spine, and osteophytes [12,13]. The tissue was subsequently embedded in paraffin wax, and 4-μm sections were made using a microtome (RM2255, Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany). Two sections of each lateral tibial condyle were stained with both Safranin-O (SO) and Masson’s trichrome (MT) stain in pairs (Figs. 2C, 2E, 3C, 3E). SO staining was used to identify glycosaminoglycans (GAG), a major component of proteoglycans (PG), and MT staining was used to identify collagen [14-18].

Bottom Line: Step 2 showed that the SHEB correlated significantly better with the topographical variation in stainability in SO staining, indicating the GAG distribution, than with MT staining, indicating the collagen distribution (P<0.05, kappa=0.722).The SHEB that is frequently seen in human articular cartilage on high-resolution US correlated better with variations in SO staining than with variations in MT staining.Thus, we suggest that a SHEB is predominantly related to changes in GAG.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea ; Musculoskeletal Imaging Laboratory, Ajou University Medical Center, Suwon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To demonstrate the superficial hyperechoic band (SHEB) in articular cartilage by using ultrasonography (US) and to assess its correlation with histological images.

Methods: In total, 47 regions of interest (ROIs) were analyzed from six tibial osteochondral specimens (OCSs) that were obtained after total knee arthroplasty. Ultrasonograms were obtained for each OCS. Then, matching histological sections from all specimens were obtained for comparison with the ultrasonograms. Two types of histological staining were used: Safranin-O stain (SO) to identify glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and Masson's trichrome stain (MT) to identify collagen. In step 1, two observers evaluated whether there was an SHEB in each ROI. In step 2, the two observers evaluated which histological staining method correlated better with the SHEB by using the ImageJ software.

Results: In step 1 of the analysis, 20 out of 47 ROIs showed an SHEB (42.6%, kappa=0.579). Step 2 showed that the SHEB correlated significantly better with the topographical variation in stainability in SO staining, indicating the GAG distribution, than with MT staining, indicating the collagen distribution (P<0.05, kappa=0.722).

Conclusion: The SHEB that is frequently seen in human articular cartilage on high-resolution US correlated better with variations in SO staining than with variations in MT staining. Thus, we suggest that a SHEB is predominantly related to changes in GAG. Identifying an SHEB by US is a promising method for assessing the thickness of articular cartilage or for monitoring early osteoarthritis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus