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The source of the river as a nursery for microbial diversity.

de Oliveira LF, Margis R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The application of NGS (next-generation sequencing technologies) for 16S analysis has been broadly used for understanding bacterioplankton composition and structure.Seasonal shifts reinforce the importance of the source of the river in maintaining the bacterial seed-bank that spreads throughout the river.Therefore, the preservation of the source of the river is important not only for hydrologic reasons but also to maintain the microbial composition and the ecological integrity of the river.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Bacteria are highly diverse and ubiquitous organisms that play a key role as drivers for ecosystem processes. The application of NGS (next-generation sequencing technologies) for 16S analysis has been broadly used for understanding bacterioplankton composition and structure. Most of studies conducted on aquatic ecosystems with 16S NGS have been in seawater and lakes. A few studies using NGS have been conducted in river environments and have suggested the presence of a bacterial seed-bank. We performed 16S highly variable V4 region high-throughput analysis in the Sinos River, which is located in one of most important Brazilian industrial centers. This region has several contrasts in its environmental characteristics, presenting a longitudinal gradient of eutrophication and making it a remarkable study site for observing the dynamics of bacterioplankton. We demonstrated consistent evidence for the existence of a bacterial seed-bank and its longitudinal persistence. Seasonal shifts reinforce the importance of the source of the river in maintaining the bacterial seed-bank that spreads throughout the river. Therefore, the preservation of the source of the river is important not only for hydrologic reasons but also to maintain the microbial composition and the ecological integrity of the river.

No MeSH data available.


Sinos River course and collection sites.The Sinos River is located in southern Brazil. 14 sampling sites are indicated moving downstream. The Sinos River is indicated by the rectangles separating it into the upper, middle and lower courses. In addition, the physicochemical groupings are indicated by the rectangles in the lower panel as Set1–4.
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pone.0120608.g001: Sinos River course and collection sites.The Sinos River is located in southern Brazil. 14 sampling sites are indicated moving downstream. The Sinos River is indicated by the rectangles separating it into the upper, middle and lower courses. In addition, the physicochemical groupings are indicated by the rectangles in the lower panel as Set1–4.

Mentions: The water was collected from the epilimnion of the river. We collected 2.1 L of water, of which 100 mL were used for further DNA extraction and 2 L were used for physicochemical analysis. The samples were labeled moving downstream along the Sinos River from the source in Caraá City (sample 1), the most protected region, to São Leopoldo City (sample 14) (Fig. 1), which is one of the most polluted sites on the Sinos River. The collection route comprised 173 km of the river, from which we collected a total of 14 samples in each season. The collection was performed in 2012, in February 14th for summer and August 28th for winter. In both days, we start the collection at 9:00 AM, with samples S01/W01, and follow the river course until samples S14/W14 were collect at 6:23 and 6:47 PM, respectively. Concerning the physicochemical parameters, all samples were analyzed for pH, aluminum, iron, turbidity, conductivity, organic matter, hardness and alkalinity.


The source of the river as a nursery for microbial diversity.

de Oliveira LF, Margis R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Sinos River course and collection sites.The Sinos River is located in southern Brazil. 14 sampling sites are indicated moving downstream. The Sinos River is indicated by the rectangles separating it into the upper, middle and lower courses. In addition, the physicochemical groupings are indicated by the rectangles in the lower panel as Set1–4.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4372583&req=5

pone.0120608.g001: Sinos River course and collection sites.The Sinos River is located in southern Brazil. 14 sampling sites are indicated moving downstream. The Sinos River is indicated by the rectangles separating it into the upper, middle and lower courses. In addition, the physicochemical groupings are indicated by the rectangles in the lower panel as Set1–4.
Mentions: The water was collected from the epilimnion of the river. We collected 2.1 L of water, of which 100 mL were used for further DNA extraction and 2 L were used for physicochemical analysis. The samples were labeled moving downstream along the Sinos River from the source in Caraá City (sample 1), the most protected region, to São Leopoldo City (sample 14) (Fig. 1), which is one of the most polluted sites on the Sinos River. The collection route comprised 173 km of the river, from which we collected a total of 14 samples in each season. The collection was performed in 2012, in February 14th for summer and August 28th for winter. In both days, we start the collection at 9:00 AM, with samples S01/W01, and follow the river course until samples S14/W14 were collect at 6:23 and 6:47 PM, respectively. Concerning the physicochemical parameters, all samples were analyzed for pH, aluminum, iron, turbidity, conductivity, organic matter, hardness and alkalinity.

Bottom Line: The application of NGS (next-generation sequencing technologies) for 16S analysis has been broadly used for understanding bacterioplankton composition and structure.Seasonal shifts reinforce the importance of the source of the river in maintaining the bacterial seed-bank that spreads throughout the river.Therefore, the preservation of the source of the river is important not only for hydrologic reasons but also to maintain the microbial composition and the ecological integrity of the river.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Bacteria are highly diverse and ubiquitous organisms that play a key role as drivers for ecosystem processes. The application of NGS (next-generation sequencing technologies) for 16S analysis has been broadly used for understanding bacterioplankton composition and structure. Most of studies conducted on aquatic ecosystems with 16S NGS have been in seawater and lakes. A few studies using NGS have been conducted in river environments and have suggested the presence of a bacterial seed-bank. We performed 16S highly variable V4 region high-throughput analysis in the Sinos River, which is located in one of most important Brazilian industrial centers. This region has several contrasts in its environmental characteristics, presenting a longitudinal gradient of eutrophication and making it a remarkable study site for observing the dynamics of bacterioplankton. We demonstrated consistent evidence for the existence of a bacterial seed-bank and its longitudinal persistence. Seasonal shifts reinforce the importance of the source of the river in maintaining the bacterial seed-bank that spreads throughout the river. Therefore, the preservation of the source of the river is important not only for hydrologic reasons but also to maintain the microbial composition and the ecological integrity of the river.

No MeSH data available.