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Alcohol use disorder with and without stimulant use: brain morphometry and its associations with cigarette smoking, cognition, and inhibitory control.

Pennington DL, Durazzo TC, Schmidt TP, Abé C, Mon A, Meyerhoff DJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures.Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users.Further elucidation of these distinctive characteristics could help inform the development of targeted and thus potentially more effective treatments in this large but understudied population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Addiction Research Program, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, California, United States of America; Northern California Institute for Research and Education, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU), and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control.

Methods: All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness) were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control.

Results: PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON.

Conclusion: Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive characteristics could help inform the development of targeted and thus potentially more effective treatments in this large but understudied population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sample FreeSurfer segmented image.Coronal (A), lateral (B) and medial (C) image showing typical automated cortical segmentation results from FreeSurfer. Different brain regions are indicated by different colors. Visible sub regions used in this study are labeled.
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pone.0122505.g001: Sample FreeSurfer segmented image.Coronal (A), lateral (B) and medial (C) image showing typical automated cortical segmentation results from FreeSurfer. Different brain regions are indicated by different colors. Visible sub regions used in this study are labeled.

Mentions: For this study, the FreeSurfer labeled ROIs were: ACC—rostral and caudal; DPFC—rostral and caudal middle frontal and superior frontal gyri; OFC—medial and lateral; and insula—standard FreeSurfer label (see Fig. 1). For the ACC, DPFC and OFC composite regions, an average thickness was calculated from the individual anatomical labels weighted by their surface area contribution that constituted each region. FreeSurfer also provides a measure of intracranial volume, estimated based on the Talairach transform [83].


Alcohol use disorder with and without stimulant use: brain morphometry and its associations with cigarette smoking, cognition, and inhibitory control.

Pennington DL, Durazzo TC, Schmidt TP, Abé C, Mon A, Meyerhoff DJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Sample FreeSurfer segmented image.Coronal (A), lateral (B) and medial (C) image showing typical automated cortical segmentation results from FreeSurfer. Different brain regions are indicated by different colors. Visible sub regions used in this study are labeled.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4372577&req=5

pone.0122505.g001: Sample FreeSurfer segmented image.Coronal (A), lateral (B) and medial (C) image showing typical automated cortical segmentation results from FreeSurfer. Different brain regions are indicated by different colors. Visible sub regions used in this study are labeled.
Mentions: For this study, the FreeSurfer labeled ROIs were: ACC—rostral and caudal; DPFC—rostral and caudal middle frontal and superior frontal gyri; OFC—medial and lateral; and insula—standard FreeSurfer label (see Fig. 1). For the ACC, DPFC and OFC composite regions, an average thickness was calculated from the individual anatomical labels weighted by their surface area contribution that constituted each region. FreeSurfer also provides a measure of intracranial volume, estimated based on the Talairach transform [83].

Bottom Line: PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures.Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users.Further elucidation of these distinctive characteristics could help inform the development of targeted and thus potentially more effective treatments in this large but understudied population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Addiction Research Program, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, California, United States of America; Northern California Institute for Research and Education, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU), and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control.

Methods: All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness) were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control.

Results: PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON.

Conclusion: Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive characteristics could help inform the development of targeted and thus potentially more effective treatments in this large but understudied population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus