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Effects of oxytocin on attention to emotional faces in healthy volunteers and highly socially anxious males.

Clark-Elford R, Nathan PJ, Auyeung B, Mogg K, Bradley BP, Sule A, Müller U, Dudas RB, Sahakian BJ, Baron-Cohen S - Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. (2014)

Bottom Line: In the baseline placebo condition, the HSA group showed greater attentional bias for emotional faces than healthy individuals.Oxytocin reduced the difference between HSA and non-socially anxious individuals in attentional bias for emotional faces.The biological mechanisms by which oxytocin may be exerting these effects are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, UK (Mrs Clark Elford, Professors Nathan, Mogg, Bradley, Sahakian,and Baron-Cohen, and Drs Auyeung, Sule, Muller, and Dudas ); Cambridge Cognition Ltd, Cambridge, UK (Dr Nathan); School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University, Australia (Dr Nathan); Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, UK (Drs Auyeung and Baron-Cohen); Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, UK (Dr Auyeung); South Essex NHS Partnership Trust, UK (Dr Sule); Psychology, University of Southampton, UK (Drs Mogg and Bradley); Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust (CPFT), UK (Drs Müller, Dudas, and Baron-Cohen); MRC/Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge (Dr Sahakian). rjc84@cam.ac.uk.

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Mean attentional bias scores for drug x group interaction. * indicates significant difference (p < .01); ns indicates non-significant.
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Figure 2: Mean attentional bias scores for drug x group interaction. * indicates significant difference (p < .01); ns indicates non-significant.

Mentions: Mean attentional bias scores for each condition are outlined in Table 1. To test Hypothesis 1 we used a planned independent t-test, which demonstrated that, post placebo, HSA participants showed increased attentional bias toward threat cues (averaged across angry and fearful faces) compared to controls (t[40] = 2.13, p =.04, d = .67, 2-tail uncorrected for hypothesis-driven test). The 2 x 2 x 3 x 2 ANOVA of bias scores to test Hypothesis 2 revealed a significant group x drug interaction, which did not interact with type of facial emotion (F[1,38] = 10.58, p < .01, η2 = .22). There were no significant main effects of drug (p = .57), emotion (p = .62), or group (p = .32). Furthermore, there was no main effect of drug order (p = .70) and were no interactions of drug order with any other variables. To clarify the group x drug interaction, post-hoc independent sample t-tests revealed that, in the placebo condition, HSA participants demonstrate significantly increased attentional bias toward emotional faces in general (averaged across angry, fearful, and happy faces) compared to controls (t[40] = 2.63, p = .01, d = .83; see Figure 2, which illustrates this significant group difference in the placebo condition). However, following oxytocin there is no significant difference between the two groups in attentional bias scores for emotional faces (p = .41). Moreover, mean attentional bias scores of HSA participants following oxytocin were not significantly different to bias scores of the control group following placebo (p = .18). Furthermore, a paired-sample t-test revealed that attentional bias scores of the control group were significantly higher post-oxytocin than post-placebo (p = .01, d = .59). In the HSA group, attentional bias scores tended to reduce post-oxytocin compared with post-placebo, although this trend did not reach significance (p = .10, d = .43; Figure 2).


Effects of oxytocin on attention to emotional faces in healthy volunteers and highly socially anxious males.

Clark-Elford R, Nathan PJ, Auyeung B, Mogg K, Bradley BP, Sule A, Müller U, Dudas RB, Sahakian BJ, Baron-Cohen S - Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. (2014)

Mean attentional bias scores for drug x group interaction. * indicates significant difference (p < .01); ns indicates non-significant.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4368883&req=5

Figure 2: Mean attentional bias scores for drug x group interaction. * indicates significant difference (p < .01); ns indicates non-significant.
Mentions: Mean attentional bias scores for each condition are outlined in Table 1. To test Hypothesis 1 we used a planned independent t-test, which demonstrated that, post placebo, HSA participants showed increased attentional bias toward threat cues (averaged across angry and fearful faces) compared to controls (t[40] = 2.13, p =.04, d = .67, 2-tail uncorrected for hypothesis-driven test). The 2 x 2 x 3 x 2 ANOVA of bias scores to test Hypothesis 2 revealed a significant group x drug interaction, which did not interact with type of facial emotion (F[1,38] = 10.58, p < .01, η2 = .22). There were no significant main effects of drug (p = .57), emotion (p = .62), or group (p = .32). Furthermore, there was no main effect of drug order (p = .70) and were no interactions of drug order with any other variables. To clarify the group x drug interaction, post-hoc independent sample t-tests revealed that, in the placebo condition, HSA participants demonstrate significantly increased attentional bias toward emotional faces in general (averaged across angry, fearful, and happy faces) compared to controls (t[40] = 2.63, p = .01, d = .83; see Figure 2, which illustrates this significant group difference in the placebo condition). However, following oxytocin there is no significant difference between the two groups in attentional bias scores for emotional faces (p = .41). Moreover, mean attentional bias scores of HSA participants following oxytocin were not significantly different to bias scores of the control group following placebo (p = .18). Furthermore, a paired-sample t-test revealed that attentional bias scores of the control group were significantly higher post-oxytocin than post-placebo (p = .01, d = .59). In the HSA group, attentional bias scores tended to reduce post-oxytocin compared with post-placebo, although this trend did not reach significance (p = .10, d = .43; Figure 2).

Bottom Line: In the baseline placebo condition, the HSA group showed greater attentional bias for emotional faces than healthy individuals.Oxytocin reduced the difference between HSA and non-socially anxious individuals in attentional bias for emotional faces.The biological mechanisms by which oxytocin may be exerting these effects are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, UK (Mrs Clark Elford, Professors Nathan, Mogg, Bradley, Sahakian,and Baron-Cohen, and Drs Auyeung, Sule, Muller, and Dudas ); Cambridge Cognition Ltd, Cambridge, UK (Dr Nathan); School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University, Australia (Dr Nathan); Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, UK (Drs Auyeung and Baron-Cohen); Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, UK (Dr Auyeung); South Essex NHS Partnership Trust, UK (Dr Sule); Psychology, University of Southampton, UK (Drs Mogg and Bradley); Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust (CPFT), UK (Drs Müller, Dudas, and Baron-Cohen); MRC/Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge (Dr Sahakian). rjc84@cam.ac.uk.

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Related in: MedlinePlus