Limits...
Immune neuroendocrine phenotypes in Coturnix coturnix: do avian species show LEWIS/FISCHER-like profiles?

Nazar FN, Barrios BE, Kaiser P, Marin RH, Correa SG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Immune neuroendocrine phenotypes (INPs) have been proposed for mammals implying the categorization of a population in subgroups underlying divergent immune-neuroendocrine interactions.Based on corticosterone levels we determined the existence of two divergent groups in Coturnix coturnix that also differed in other immune-neuroendocrine responses.Quail with lowest corticosterone showed higher lymphoproliferative and antibody responses, interferon-γ and interleukin-1β mRNA expression levels and lower frequencies of leukocyte subpopulations distribution and interleukin-13 levels, than their higher corticosterone counterparts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biological and Technological Investigations Institute (IIByT), National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET) and National University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Immunoneuroendocrinology studies have identified conserved communicational paths in birds and mammals, e.g. the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by glucocorticoids. Immune neuroendocrine phenotypes (INPs) have been proposed for mammals implying the categorization of a population in subgroups underlying divergent immune-neuroendocrine interactions. These phenotypes were studied in the context of the LEWIS/FISCHER paradigm (rats expressing high or low pro-inflammatory profiles, respectively). Although avian species have some common immunological mechanisms with mammals, they have also evolved some distinct strategies and, until now, it has not been studied whether birds may also share with mammals similar INPs. Based on corticosterone levels we determined the existence of two divergent groups in Coturnix coturnix that also differed in other immune-neuroendocrine responses. Quail with lowest corticosterone showed higher lymphoproliferative and antibody responses, interferon-γ and interleukin-1β mRNA expression levels and lower frequencies of leukocyte subpopulations distribution and interleukin-13 levels, than their higher corticosterone counterparts. Results suggest the existence of INPs in birds, comparable to mammalian LEWIS/FISCHER profiles, where basal corticosterone also underlies responses of comparable variables associated to the phenotypes. Concluding, INP may not be a mammalian distinct feature, leading to discuss whether these profiles represent a parallel phenomenon evolved in birds and mammals, or a common feature inherited from a reptilian ancestor millions of years ago.

No MeSH data available.


Determination of divergent basal CORT level groups.Low and High CORT animals grouped based on their CORT level. Birds belonging to the High CORT group have 2.7-fold higher CORT concentrations than their Low CORT counterparts. Data are means ± SE. Different letters indicate significant (p < 0.05) differences between groups. Number of birds in the study = 60, number of birds per group = 10.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4368694&req=5

pone.0120712.g002: Determination of divergent basal CORT level groups.Low and High CORT animals grouped based on their CORT level. Birds belonging to the High CORT group have 2.7-fold higher CORT concentrations than their Low CORT counterparts. Data are means ± SE. Different letters indicate significant (p < 0.05) differences between groups. Number of birds in the study = 60, number of birds per group = 10.

Mentions: Together, our results show that CORT is the most influential variable in the explanation of the variability between animals and that correlates with all the other variables measured. It is also important to highlight that this hormone (i) is a marker of HPA neuroendocrine axis activity which is essential in immune-neuroendocrine interactions [16,51–53], (ii) acts as a powerful endogenous immune modulator [12,13,17,47,53,54] and (iii) is the central hormone involved in the LEW/F344 paradigm [19,22], which turned out to be the first INP outcome in mammals. Therefore we used CORT to delimitate two extreme groups of animals that could express putatively divergent phenotypes. According to their CORT basal level and their PCA bi-plot graph distribution, birds within the top and bottom 16% extremes of the population were designated as High and Low CORT, respectively (see further details below). Elenkov et al. (2008) determined INPs in other species by subtracting and adding 1 standard deviation from the mean of the grouping hormone population value. In our study, all the birds assigned to the high or low CORT group were also found to show individual values differing at least 1 standard deviation from the population mean. ANOVA consequently revealed a highly significant main effect of CORT level (F1,18 = 40, p < 0.001) (Fig. 2). The two groups previously defined were hence denominated “Low CORT” or “High CORT” (animals with the lowest or the highest hormonal levels, respectively). Animals belonging to the High CORT selected group had on average 2.7-fold higher CORT concentration than their Low CORT counterparts.


Immune neuroendocrine phenotypes in Coturnix coturnix: do avian species show LEWIS/FISCHER-like profiles?

Nazar FN, Barrios BE, Kaiser P, Marin RH, Correa SG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Determination of divergent basal CORT level groups.Low and High CORT animals grouped based on their CORT level. Birds belonging to the High CORT group have 2.7-fold higher CORT concentrations than their Low CORT counterparts. Data are means ± SE. Different letters indicate significant (p < 0.05) differences between groups. Number of birds in the study = 60, number of birds per group = 10.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4368694&req=5

pone.0120712.g002: Determination of divergent basal CORT level groups.Low and High CORT animals grouped based on their CORT level. Birds belonging to the High CORT group have 2.7-fold higher CORT concentrations than their Low CORT counterparts. Data are means ± SE. Different letters indicate significant (p < 0.05) differences between groups. Number of birds in the study = 60, number of birds per group = 10.
Mentions: Together, our results show that CORT is the most influential variable in the explanation of the variability between animals and that correlates with all the other variables measured. It is also important to highlight that this hormone (i) is a marker of HPA neuroendocrine axis activity which is essential in immune-neuroendocrine interactions [16,51–53], (ii) acts as a powerful endogenous immune modulator [12,13,17,47,53,54] and (iii) is the central hormone involved in the LEW/F344 paradigm [19,22], which turned out to be the first INP outcome in mammals. Therefore we used CORT to delimitate two extreme groups of animals that could express putatively divergent phenotypes. According to their CORT basal level and their PCA bi-plot graph distribution, birds within the top and bottom 16% extremes of the population were designated as High and Low CORT, respectively (see further details below). Elenkov et al. (2008) determined INPs in other species by subtracting and adding 1 standard deviation from the mean of the grouping hormone population value. In our study, all the birds assigned to the high or low CORT group were also found to show individual values differing at least 1 standard deviation from the population mean. ANOVA consequently revealed a highly significant main effect of CORT level (F1,18 = 40, p < 0.001) (Fig. 2). The two groups previously defined were hence denominated “Low CORT” or “High CORT” (animals with the lowest or the highest hormonal levels, respectively). Animals belonging to the High CORT selected group had on average 2.7-fold higher CORT concentration than their Low CORT counterparts.

Bottom Line: Immune neuroendocrine phenotypes (INPs) have been proposed for mammals implying the categorization of a population in subgroups underlying divergent immune-neuroendocrine interactions.Based on corticosterone levels we determined the existence of two divergent groups in Coturnix coturnix that also differed in other immune-neuroendocrine responses.Quail with lowest corticosterone showed higher lymphoproliferative and antibody responses, interferon-γ and interleukin-1β mRNA expression levels and lower frequencies of leukocyte subpopulations distribution and interleukin-13 levels, than their higher corticosterone counterparts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biological and Technological Investigations Institute (IIByT), National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET) and National University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Immunoneuroendocrinology studies have identified conserved communicational paths in birds and mammals, e.g. the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by glucocorticoids. Immune neuroendocrine phenotypes (INPs) have been proposed for mammals implying the categorization of a population in subgroups underlying divergent immune-neuroendocrine interactions. These phenotypes were studied in the context of the LEWIS/FISCHER paradigm (rats expressing high or low pro-inflammatory profiles, respectively). Although avian species have some common immunological mechanisms with mammals, they have also evolved some distinct strategies and, until now, it has not been studied whether birds may also share with mammals similar INPs. Based on corticosterone levels we determined the existence of two divergent groups in Coturnix coturnix that also differed in other immune-neuroendocrine responses. Quail with lowest corticosterone showed higher lymphoproliferative and antibody responses, interferon-γ and interleukin-1β mRNA expression levels and lower frequencies of leukocyte subpopulations distribution and interleukin-13 levels, than their higher corticosterone counterparts. Results suggest the existence of INPs in birds, comparable to mammalian LEWIS/FISCHER profiles, where basal corticosterone also underlies responses of comparable variables associated to the phenotypes. Concluding, INP may not be a mammalian distinct feature, leading to discuss whether these profiles represent a parallel phenomenon evolved in birds and mammals, or a common feature inherited from a reptilian ancestor millions of years ago.

No MeSH data available.