School- and family-level socioeconomic status and health behaviors: multilevel analysis of a national survey in wales, United Kingdom.
Bottom Line: Higher family SES was associated with healthier behaviors, except in relation to alcohol consumption.For all behaviors except physical activity, school-level SES was independently associated with healthier behaviors.Identifying universal health improvement interventions which have greater effects among children from poorer backgrounds may be a more effective means of reducing inequalities.
Affiliation: DECIPHer, School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, 1-3 Museum Place, Cardiff CF10 3BD, United Kingdom. MooreG@cardiff.ac.uk.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The interactions between school- and family-level affluence in terms of smoking and physical activity are portrayed in Figure 1. Each line depicts the gradient in percentages of children smoking or participating in physical activity within schools of (1) high affluence (ie, low FSM entitlement); (2) medium affluence (ie, medium FSM entitlement); and (3) low affluence (ie, high FSM entitlement). For physical activity, children from less affluent families were less physically active if they attended a more affluent (low FSM) school. For children from more affluent families, physical activity levels are similar regardless of school SES. For smoking, there is a steeper socioeconomic gradient in affluent schools. Among children from poorer families, smoking levels are similar regardless of school affluence, whereas for children from more affluent families, smoking is less likely if attending a more affluent school. As data in Table3 indicate, the interaction between school and family SES in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption approached statistical significance. This interaction is depicted in Figure 2, showing that for high, medium, and low FSM schools, fruit and vegetable consumption was highest among children from more affluent families. However, the association between family SES and consumption of fruit and vegetables is stronger in more affluent schools.
Affiliation: DECIPHer, School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, 1-3 Museum Place, Cardiff CF10 3BD, United Kingdom. MooreG@cardiff.ac.uk.