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Genetic structure analysis of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei isolates from central and southern China.

Zhang X, Cui J, Liu LN, Jiang P, Wang H, Qi X, Wu XQ, Wang ZQ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Total 61 haplotypes were found in these 88 concatenated sequences.The BEAST analysis showed that the divergence time between the two clades took place in the early Pleistocene (1.16 Myr), and by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) an expansion occurred after about 0.3 Myr ago.S. erinaceieuropaei from central and southern China has significant phylogeographic structure, and climatic oscillations during glacial periods in the Quaternary may affect the demography and diversification of this species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Medical College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Sparganosis caused by invasion of the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei have increased in recent years in China. However, the population genetic structure regarding this parasite is still unclear. In this study, we used the sequences of two mitochondrial genes cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) to analyze genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of the S. erinaceieuropaei populations.

Methodology/principal findings: A total of 88 S. erinaceieuropaei isolates were collected from naturally infected frogs in 14 geographical locations of China. The complete cytb and cox1 genes of each sample was amplified and sequenced. Total 61 haplotypes were found in these 88 concatenated sequences. Each sampled population and the total population have high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). Phylogenetic analyses of haplotypes revealed two distinct clades (HeN+HuN+GZ-AS clade and GX+HN+GZ-GY clade) corresponding two sub-networks yielded by the median-joining network. Pairwise FST values supported great genetic differentiation between S. erinaceieuropaei populations. Both negative Fu's FS value of neutrality tests and unimodal curve of mismatch distribution analyses supported demographic population expansion in the HeN+HuN+GZ-AS clade. The BEAST analysis showed that the divergence time between the two clades took place in the early Pleistocene (1.16 Myr), and by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) an expansion occurred after about 0.3 Myr ago.

Conclusions: S. erinaceieuropaei from central and southern China has significant phylogeographic structure, and climatic oscillations during glacial periods in the Quaternary may affect the demography and diversification of this species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A Bayesian skyline plot derived from an alignment of mtDNA haplotypes of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei isolates in Clade I.The X-axis is in units of million years in the past and the Y-axis is Ne×μ (effective population size × mutation rate per site per generation). The median estimates are shown as thick solid lines, and the 95% HPD limits are shown by the blue areas.
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pone.0119295.g006: A Bayesian skyline plot derived from an alignment of mtDNA haplotypes of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei isolates in Clade I.The X-axis is in units of million years in the past and the Y-axis is Ne×μ (effective population size × mutation rate per site per generation). The median estimates are shown as thick solid lines, and the 95% HPD limits are shown by the blue areas.

Mentions: The results of neutral test analyses were submitted in the Table 4. All values of Fu’s FS of clade I, clade II and total population were negative, however, only the value of clade I was significant. Except clade I possessed a negative value of Tajima’s D, the values of Tajima’s D of both clade II and total population were positive, and all values of Tajima’s D were insignificant under significance levels p = 0.05. Mismatch distribution analyses showed a unimodal frequency distribution of pairwise differences in clade I (Fig. 5). All above results suggest demographic expansion in clade I. And a population expansion was identified after about 0.3 Myr (middle Pleistocene) by the result of BSP analysis of clade I (Fig. 6). However, both mismatch distribution analyses and the neutrality tests rejected a sudden population expansion in the clade II (Table 4 and Fig. 5).


Genetic structure analysis of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei isolates from central and southern China.

Zhang X, Cui J, Liu LN, Jiang P, Wang H, Qi X, Wu XQ, Wang ZQ - PLoS ONE (2015)

A Bayesian skyline plot derived from an alignment of mtDNA haplotypes of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei isolates in Clade I.The X-axis is in units of million years in the past and the Y-axis is Ne×μ (effective population size × mutation rate per site per generation). The median estimates are shown as thick solid lines, and the 95% HPD limits are shown by the blue areas.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4368571&req=5

pone.0119295.g006: A Bayesian skyline plot derived from an alignment of mtDNA haplotypes of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei isolates in Clade I.The X-axis is in units of million years in the past and the Y-axis is Ne×μ (effective population size × mutation rate per site per generation). The median estimates are shown as thick solid lines, and the 95% HPD limits are shown by the blue areas.
Mentions: The results of neutral test analyses were submitted in the Table 4. All values of Fu’s FS of clade I, clade II and total population were negative, however, only the value of clade I was significant. Except clade I possessed a negative value of Tajima’s D, the values of Tajima’s D of both clade II and total population were positive, and all values of Tajima’s D were insignificant under significance levels p = 0.05. Mismatch distribution analyses showed a unimodal frequency distribution of pairwise differences in clade I (Fig. 5). All above results suggest demographic expansion in clade I. And a population expansion was identified after about 0.3 Myr (middle Pleistocene) by the result of BSP analysis of clade I (Fig. 6). However, both mismatch distribution analyses and the neutrality tests rejected a sudden population expansion in the clade II (Table 4 and Fig. 5).

Bottom Line: Total 61 haplotypes were found in these 88 concatenated sequences.The BEAST analysis showed that the divergence time between the two clades took place in the early Pleistocene (1.16 Myr), and by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) an expansion occurred after about 0.3 Myr ago.S. erinaceieuropaei from central and southern China has significant phylogeographic structure, and climatic oscillations during glacial periods in the Quaternary may affect the demography and diversification of this species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Medical College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Sparganosis caused by invasion of the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei have increased in recent years in China. However, the population genetic structure regarding this parasite is still unclear. In this study, we used the sequences of two mitochondrial genes cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) to analyze genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of the S. erinaceieuropaei populations.

Methodology/principal findings: A total of 88 S. erinaceieuropaei isolates were collected from naturally infected frogs in 14 geographical locations of China. The complete cytb and cox1 genes of each sample was amplified and sequenced. Total 61 haplotypes were found in these 88 concatenated sequences. Each sampled population and the total population have high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). Phylogenetic analyses of haplotypes revealed two distinct clades (HeN+HuN+GZ-AS clade and GX+HN+GZ-GY clade) corresponding two sub-networks yielded by the median-joining network. Pairwise FST values supported great genetic differentiation between S. erinaceieuropaei populations. Both negative Fu's FS value of neutrality tests and unimodal curve of mismatch distribution analyses supported demographic population expansion in the HeN+HuN+GZ-AS clade. The BEAST analysis showed that the divergence time between the two clades took place in the early Pleistocene (1.16 Myr), and by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) an expansion occurred after about 0.3 Myr ago.

Conclusions: S. erinaceieuropaei from central and southern China has significant phylogeographic structure, and climatic oscillations during glacial periods in the Quaternary may affect the demography and diversification of this species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus