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Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females.

Ammar el-D, Hentz M, Hall DG, Shatters RG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs.Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward.The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Horticultural Research Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of 'naturally waxed' and 'dewaxed' nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

SEM of the circumanal ring, honeydew excretions and circumabdominal setae of melaleuca psyllid nymphs (dorsal views except in D).A & B. Part of the circumanal ring (cr) around the anus (an) in dewaxed nymphs, with an outer row of wax pores (wp) and an inner row of slits (sl); ls, long setae; sp, rows of short spines pointed posteriorly. C. Circumabdominal setae (cs) covered with wax filaments in a ‘waxed’ nymph. D. Ventral view of the posterior end of the abdomen in a 2nd-3rd instar nymph with wax-covered honeydew (hd); cr, circumanal ring. E. Higher magnification of wax filaments covering honeydew excretions (hd) at the end of the abdomen; wb, wax bundles. Additional abbreviations: cs, circumabdominal setae.
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pone.0121354.g003: SEM of the circumanal ring, honeydew excretions and circumabdominal setae of melaleuca psyllid nymphs (dorsal views except in D).A & B. Part of the circumanal ring (cr) around the anus (an) in dewaxed nymphs, with an outer row of wax pores (wp) and an inner row of slits (sl); ls, long setae; sp, rows of short spines pointed posteriorly. C. Circumabdominal setae (cs) covered with wax filaments in a ‘waxed’ nymph. D. Ventral view of the posterior end of the abdomen in a 2nd-3rd instar nymph with wax-covered honeydew (hd); cr, circumanal ring. E. Higher magnification of wax filaments covering honeydew excretions (hd) at the end of the abdomen; wb, wax bundles. Additional abbreviations: cs, circumabdominal setae.

Mentions: In the melaleuca psyllid nymphs of all instars the anus is found at the posterior tip of the abdomen, surrounded by an ornate circumanal ring (Fig. 3A) parts of which can usually be seen dorsally as well as ventrally. Ultrastructurally, using SEM, the circumanal ring is composed of an undulating row of wax pores, each 4.34 ± 0.40 μm long and 1.74 ± 0.20 μm wide, with cuticular ridges 0.50 ± 0.11μm wide, between them (Fig. 3A, 3B). Inside this row of pores, another row of much smaller deep slits, each 1.31± 0.17 μm wide, is found (Fig. 3A, 3B). In some ‘waxed’ nymphs (uncleaned from wax), whitish honeydew balls were still attached to their posterior end (Figs. 1C, 3D). On the surface of these honeydew excretions, several lines of fine convoluted wax filaments appeared to be coming out of the wax pores and/or slits of the circumanal ring (Fig. 3D, 3E).


Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females.

Ammar el-D, Hentz M, Hall DG, Shatters RG - PLoS ONE (2015)

SEM of the circumanal ring, honeydew excretions and circumabdominal setae of melaleuca psyllid nymphs (dorsal views except in D).A & B. Part of the circumanal ring (cr) around the anus (an) in dewaxed nymphs, with an outer row of wax pores (wp) and an inner row of slits (sl); ls, long setae; sp, rows of short spines pointed posteriorly. C. Circumabdominal setae (cs) covered with wax filaments in a ‘waxed’ nymph. D. Ventral view of the posterior end of the abdomen in a 2nd-3rd instar nymph with wax-covered honeydew (hd); cr, circumanal ring. E. Higher magnification of wax filaments covering honeydew excretions (hd) at the end of the abdomen; wb, wax bundles. Additional abbreviations: cs, circumabdominal setae.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4368535&req=5

pone.0121354.g003: SEM of the circumanal ring, honeydew excretions and circumabdominal setae of melaleuca psyllid nymphs (dorsal views except in D).A & B. Part of the circumanal ring (cr) around the anus (an) in dewaxed nymphs, with an outer row of wax pores (wp) and an inner row of slits (sl); ls, long setae; sp, rows of short spines pointed posteriorly. C. Circumabdominal setae (cs) covered with wax filaments in a ‘waxed’ nymph. D. Ventral view of the posterior end of the abdomen in a 2nd-3rd instar nymph with wax-covered honeydew (hd); cr, circumanal ring. E. Higher magnification of wax filaments covering honeydew excretions (hd) at the end of the abdomen; wb, wax bundles. Additional abbreviations: cs, circumabdominal setae.
Mentions: In the melaleuca psyllid nymphs of all instars the anus is found at the posterior tip of the abdomen, surrounded by an ornate circumanal ring (Fig. 3A) parts of which can usually be seen dorsally as well as ventrally. Ultrastructurally, using SEM, the circumanal ring is composed of an undulating row of wax pores, each 4.34 ± 0.40 μm long and 1.74 ± 0.20 μm wide, with cuticular ridges 0.50 ± 0.11μm wide, between them (Fig. 3A, 3B). Inside this row of pores, another row of much smaller deep slits, each 1.31± 0.17 μm wide, is found (Fig. 3A, 3B). In some ‘waxed’ nymphs (uncleaned from wax), whitish honeydew balls were still attached to their posterior end (Figs. 1C, 3D). On the surface of these honeydew excretions, several lines of fine convoluted wax filaments appeared to be coming out of the wax pores and/or slits of the circumanal ring (Fig. 3D, 3E).

Bottom Line: Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs.Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward.The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Horticultural Research Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of 'naturally waxed' and 'dewaxed' nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus