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Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females.

Ammar el-D, Hentz M, Hall DG, Shatters RG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs.Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward.The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Horticultural Research Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of 'naturally waxed' and 'dewaxed' nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

SEM of waxy secretions and wax pore plates on the integument of melaleuca psyllid nymphs (dorsal views).A & B. Older (4th-5th instar) nymph with wax bundles (arrows) extending from the abdomen (ab); note that the head (h), thorax (th) and first 3 abdominal segments do not have wax bundles. C&D. Part of the abdomen in ‘dewaxed’ 4th-5th instar nymphs, showing arrays of wax pore plates of types 1 (p1) and 2 (p2), as well as the circumanal ring (cr) at the posterior end of the abdomen. E. Higher magnification of wax pore plates, types 1 (p1) and 2 (p2) in dewaxed nymphs; note the open slits (sl) in both types, and the pits (pi), peripheral groove (pg) and raised rim (ri) especially in type-1. F. Wax bundles (wb) coming out of type-1 pore plates (p1), and wax curls (wc) apparently coming out of type-2 pore plates (p2), on the abdomen of a waxed nymph. Additional abbreviations: cs, circumabdominal setae.
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pone.0121354.g002: SEM of waxy secretions and wax pore plates on the integument of melaleuca psyllid nymphs (dorsal views).A & B. Older (4th-5th instar) nymph with wax bundles (arrows) extending from the abdomen (ab); note that the head (h), thorax (th) and first 3 abdominal segments do not have wax bundles. C&D. Part of the abdomen in ‘dewaxed’ 4th-5th instar nymphs, showing arrays of wax pore plates of types 1 (p1) and 2 (p2), as well as the circumanal ring (cr) at the posterior end of the abdomen. E. Higher magnification of wax pore plates, types 1 (p1) and 2 (p2) in dewaxed nymphs; note the open slits (sl) in both types, and the pits (pi), peripheral groove (pg) and raised rim (ri) especially in type-1. F. Wax bundles (wb) coming out of type-1 pore plates (p1), and wax curls (wc) apparently coming out of type-2 pore plates (p2), on the abdomen of a waxed nymph. Additional abbreviations: cs, circumabdominal setae.

Mentions: SEM examination of melaleuca psyllid nymphs of various instars revealed no wax bundles or wax producing structures on the thorax or the first three abdominal segments (Fig. 2A, 2B). However, on the rest of the abdominal segments, dorsally and laterally starting with the 4th segment several arrays of wax pore plates were found (Fig. 2C, 2D). These wax pore plates can be divided, according to their ultrastructure, into two types designated here as types 1 and 2. Both types of pore plates are quadrate or quasi-spherical in shape, with a mean diameter of 7.37 ± 0.84 μm (N = 84), and each contained 4–8 apparently open slits (straight, curved or star-shaped) that averaged 1.68 ± 0.30 μm in length (Fig. 2E). However, type-1 pore plates are distinguished by a raised rim and a deep peripheral groove on the inside of this rim, whereas type-2 pore plates themselves were slightly raised above the cuticle, without a complete rim or only with a partial one (Fig. 2C-2E). Type-1 pore plates also usually contained four deep pits in addition to the open slits found in both types 1 and 2 (Fig. 2E). By comparing waxed and dewaxed nymphs, it can be concluded that type-1 pore plates produced long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that appeared to be coming out of the peripheral groove, open slits and/or pits, and to be eventually wound together forming very long wax bundles that extend laterally and posteriorly from the abdomen (Fig. 2A, 2B, 2F). Type-2 pore plates, however, appeared to produce shorter curls of wax from their slits (Fig. 2F).


Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females.

Ammar el-D, Hentz M, Hall DG, Shatters RG - PLoS ONE (2015)

SEM of waxy secretions and wax pore plates on the integument of melaleuca psyllid nymphs (dorsal views).A & B. Older (4th-5th instar) nymph with wax bundles (arrows) extending from the abdomen (ab); note that the head (h), thorax (th) and first 3 abdominal segments do not have wax bundles. C&D. Part of the abdomen in ‘dewaxed’ 4th-5th instar nymphs, showing arrays of wax pore plates of types 1 (p1) and 2 (p2), as well as the circumanal ring (cr) at the posterior end of the abdomen. E. Higher magnification of wax pore plates, types 1 (p1) and 2 (p2) in dewaxed nymphs; note the open slits (sl) in both types, and the pits (pi), peripheral groove (pg) and raised rim (ri) especially in type-1. F. Wax bundles (wb) coming out of type-1 pore plates (p1), and wax curls (wc) apparently coming out of type-2 pore plates (p2), on the abdomen of a waxed nymph. Additional abbreviations: cs, circumabdominal setae.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4368535&req=5

pone.0121354.g002: SEM of waxy secretions and wax pore plates on the integument of melaleuca psyllid nymphs (dorsal views).A & B. Older (4th-5th instar) nymph with wax bundles (arrows) extending from the abdomen (ab); note that the head (h), thorax (th) and first 3 abdominal segments do not have wax bundles. C&D. Part of the abdomen in ‘dewaxed’ 4th-5th instar nymphs, showing arrays of wax pore plates of types 1 (p1) and 2 (p2), as well as the circumanal ring (cr) at the posterior end of the abdomen. E. Higher magnification of wax pore plates, types 1 (p1) and 2 (p2) in dewaxed nymphs; note the open slits (sl) in both types, and the pits (pi), peripheral groove (pg) and raised rim (ri) especially in type-1. F. Wax bundles (wb) coming out of type-1 pore plates (p1), and wax curls (wc) apparently coming out of type-2 pore plates (p2), on the abdomen of a waxed nymph. Additional abbreviations: cs, circumabdominal setae.
Mentions: SEM examination of melaleuca psyllid nymphs of various instars revealed no wax bundles or wax producing structures on the thorax or the first three abdominal segments (Fig. 2A, 2B). However, on the rest of the abdominal segments, dorsally and laterally starting with the 4th segment several arrays of wax pore plates were found (Fig. 2C, 2D). These wax pore plates can be divided, according to their ultrastructure, into two types designated here as types 1 and 2. Both types of pore plates are quadrate or quasi-spherical in shape, with a mean diameter of 7.37 ± 0.84 μm (N = 84), and each contained 4–8 apparently open slits (straight, curved or star-shaped) that averaged 1.68 ± 0.30 μm in length (Fig. 2E). However, type-1 pore plates are distinguished by a raised rim and a deep peripheral groove on the inside of this rim, whereas type-2 pore plates themselves were slightly raised above the cuticle, without a complete rim or only with a partial one (Fig. 2C-2E). Type-1 pore plates also usually contained four deep pits in addition to the open slits found in both types 1 and 2 (Fig. 2E). By comparing waxed and dewaxed nymphs, it can be concluded that type-1 pore plates produced long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that appeared to be coming out of the peripheral groove, open slits and/or pits, and to be eventually wound together forming very long wax bundles that extend laterally and posteriorly from the abdomen (Fig. 2A, 2B, 2F). Type-2 pore plates, however, appeared to produce shorter curls of wax from their slits (Fig. 2F).

Bottom Line: Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs.Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward.The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Horticultural Research Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of 'naturally waxed' and 'dewaxed' nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus