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Identification of communal oviposition pheromones from the black fly Simulium vittatum.

McGaha TW, Young RM, Burkett-Cadena ND, Iburg JP, Beau JM, Hassan S, Katholi CR, Cupp EW, Baker BJ, Unnasch TR, Noblet R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Behavioral assays demonstrated that communal oviposition was induced by egg-derived compounds that were active at short range and whose effect was enhanced through direct contact.Three compounds (cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol, 1-pentadecene, and 1-tridecene) were identified in a non-polar solvent extract of freshly deposited S. vittatum eggs that were capable of inducing the oviposition response.Electroantennography demonstrated that two of these three compounds (1-pentadecene and 1-tridecene) actively stimulated antennal neurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The suite of pheromones that promote communal oviposition by Simulium vittatum, a North American black fly species, was identified and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrophysiological, and behavioral bioassays. Behavioral assays demonstrated that communal oviposition was induced by egg-derived compounds that were active at short range and whose effect was enhanced through direct contact. Three compounds (cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol, 1-pentadecene, and 1-tridecene) were identified in a non-polar solvent extract of freshly deposited S. vittatum eggs that were capable of inducing the oviposition response. Electroantennography demonstrated that two of these three compounds (1-pentadecene and 1-tridecene) actively stimulated antennal neurons. Identification of the oviposition pheromones of this family may be helpful in developing control measures for nuisance black flies and for medically-important species such as Simulium damnosum sensu lato.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The behavioral responses of gravid S. vittatum to fresh conspecific eggs in the orientation double chamber assay.Assays were conducted in the presence or absence of fresh eggs, in the lower chamber, as described in Materials and Methods. Values that were significantly different from the control are indicated by an asterisk [*] (unpaired t-test, P < 0.05) and those which were not significantly different values are indicated by NS (P > 0.05).
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pone.0118904.g004: The behavioral responses of gravid S. vittatum to fresh conspecific eggs in the orientation double chamber assay.Assays were conducted in the presence or absence of fresh eggs, in the lower chamber, as described in Materials and Methods. Values that were significantly different from the control are indicated by an asterisk [*] (unpaired t-test, P < 0.05) and those which were not significantly different values are indicated by NS (P > 0.05).

Mentions: As a first step in addressing the nature of the attractive response to the fresh eggs, the orientation double chamber bioassay was developed in which flies were introduced into an neutral chamber and then timed as to how long it took the files to move into an adjacent test chamber containing either a substrate with eggs or a control substrate without eggs. In addition, the time to oviposition once in the test chamber and in contact with the substrate was also measured. The time it took for flies to move from the neural chamber into the test chamber containing fresh eggs was not significantly different when the test chamber contained fresh eggs or water soaked substrate alone (Fig. 4; t = 1.105, P = 0.300). However, once flies had landed on the oviposition substrate, they oviposited significantly more quickly on the substrate with eggs than did the flies that landed on the substrate with no eggs (Fig. 4; t = 2.646, P = 0.0294). This difference was statistically significant only when the substrates were not covered by a wire mesh, preventing direct fly-egg contact (Fig. 5; t = 3.283, P = 0.0028).


Identification of communal oviposition pheromones from the black fly Simulium vittatum.

McGaha TW, Young RM, Burkett-Cadena ND, Iburg JP, Beau JM, Hassan S, Katholi CR, Cupp EW, Baker BJ, Unnasch TR, Noblet R - PLoS ONE (2015)

The behavioral responses of gravid S. vittatum to fresh conspecific eggs in the orientation double chamber assay.Assays were conducted in the presence or absence of fresh eggs, in the lower chamber, as described in Materials and Methods. Values that were significantly different from the control are indicated by an asterisk [*] (unpaired t-test, P < 0.05) and those which were not significantly different values are indicated by NS (P > 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4364695&req=5

pone.0118904.g004: The behavioral responses of gravid S. vittatum to fresh conspecific eggs in the orientation double chamber assay.Assays were conducted in the presence or absence of fresh eggs, in the lower chamber, as described in Materials and Methods. Values that were significantly different from the control are indicated by an asterisk [*] (unpaired t-test, P < 0.05) and those which were not significantly different values are indicated by NS (P > 0.05).
Mentions: As a first step in addressing the nature of the attractive response to the fresh eggs, the orientation double chamber bioassay was developed in which flies were introduced into an neutral chamber and then timed as to how long it took the files to move into an adjacent test chamber containing either a substrate with eggs or a control substrate without eggs. In addition, the time to oviposition once in the test chamber and in contact with the substrate was also measured. The time it took for flies to move from the neural chamber into the test chamber containing fresh eggs was not significantly different when the test chamber contained fresh eggs or water soaked substrate alone (Fig. 4; t = 1.105, P = 0.300). However, once flies had landed on the oviposition substrate, they oviposited significantly more quickly on the substrate with eggs than did the flies that landed on the substrate with no eggs (Fig. 4; t = 2.646, P = 0.0294). This difference was statistically significant only when the substrates were not covered by a wire mesh, preventing direct fly-egg contact (Fig. 5; t = 3.283, P = 0.0028).

Bottom Line: Behavioral assays demonstrated that communal oviposition was induced by egg-derived compounds that were active at short range and whose effect was enhanced through direct contact.Three compounds (cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol, 1-pentadecene, and 1-tridecene) were identified in a non-polar solvent extract of freshly deposited S. vittatum eggs that were capable of inducing the oviposition response.Electroantennography demonstrated that two of these three compounds (1-pentadecene and 1-tridecene) actively stimulated antennal neurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The suite of pheromones that promote communal oviposition by Simulium vittatum, a North American black fly species, was identified and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrophysiological, and behavioral bioassays. Behavioral assays demonstrated that communal oviposition was induced by egg-derived compounds that were active at short range and whose effect was enhanced through direct contact. Three compounds (cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol, 1-pentadecene, and 1-tridecene) were identified in a non-polar solvent extract of freshly deposited S. vittatum eggs that were capable of inducing the oviposition response. Electroantennography demonstrated that two of these three compounds (1-pentadecene and 1-tridecene) actively stimulated antennal neurons. Identification of the oviposition pheromones of this family may be helpful in developing control measures for nuisance black flies and for medically-important species such as Simulium damnosum sensu lato.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus