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Si-CSP9 regulates the integument and moulting process of larvae in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

Cheng D, Lu Y, Zeng L, Liang G, He X - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 4 pathways associated with larval development were significantly enriched.Significantly higher expression of these genes was found in 4th-instar larvae, and Pearson correlation analysis of the expression patterns revealed significant relationships among Si-CSP9, PKA, FAAH, and FAT1-4.Moreover, we confirmed that expression levels of Si-CSP9, FAAH, and FAT1-4 were significantly reduced and that the development of 3rd-instar larvae was halted with PKA silencing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic China.

ABSTRACT
Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been predicted to be involved in development; however, direct evidence for their involvement is lacking, and genetic basis is largely unknown. To determine the function of the chemosensory protein 9 (Si-CSP9) gene in Solenopsis invicta, we used RNA interference to silence Si-CSP9 in 3rd-instar larvae. The 3rd-instar larvae failed to shed their cuticle after being fed Si-CSP9-directed siRNA, and expression profiling of RNAi-treated and untreated control larvae showed that 375 genes were differentially expressed. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 4 pathways associated with larval development were significantly enriched. Blast analysis revealed that one fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene was up-regulated and 4 fatty acid synthase (FAT) genes and one protein kinase DC2 gene (PKA) were down-regulated in the enriched pathways. Significantly higher expression of these genes was found in 4th-instar larvae, and Pearson correlation analysis of the expression patterns revealed significant relationships among Si-CSP9, PKA, FAAH, and FAT1-4. Moreover, we confirmed that expression levels of Si-CSP9, FAAH, and FAT1-4 were significantly reduced and that the development of 3rd-instar larvae was halted with PKA silencing. These results suggest that Si-CSP9 and PKA may be involved in the network that contributes to development of 3rd-instar larvae.

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Diversity of ontological categories of differentially expressedgenes.(A): Ontological categories in biological process. (B): Ontologicalcategories in cell component. (C): Ontological categories in molecularfunction.
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f5: Diversity of ontological categories of differentially expressedgenes.(A): Ontological categories in biological process. (B): Ontologicalcategories in cell component. (C): Ontological categories in molecularfunction.

Mentions: There were 375 differentially expressed genes (67 up-regulated genes and 308down-regulated genes) when Si-CSP9 was silenced in the SiRNA feedingtreatment. These genes fell into various ontological categories (Figure 5) and pathways (Table 1). Withregard to biological processes for the differentially expressed genes, themetabolic process exhibited the highest number of differentially expressedgenes, at 116 (Figure 5A, SupplementaryDataset S1). The genes in the metabolic process were significantlyenriched in the following: fatty acid biosynthesis; glycine, serine andthreonine metabolism; metabolic pathways; the hedgehog signalling pathway; andcarbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor (Table 1). As has been previously reported, fatty acidbiosynthesis, metabolic pathways, hedgehog signalling, and glutamineamido-N-donor carbon-nitrogen ligase activity have been demonstrated to have asignificant effect on the development of insect larvae2425262728. We performed blast and phylogenetic analyses ofthe most differentially expressed genes in the significantly enriched pathwaysand metabolic processes: namely, a protein kinase DC2 gene (PKA) involvedin the hedgehog signalling pathway, one fatty acid amide hydrolase gene(FAAH) involved in glutamine amido-N-donor carbon-nitrogen ligaseactivity, and 4 fatty acid synthase genes (FAT1, FAT2, FAT3, FAT4)involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic pathways (Figure 6A, 6B, and 6C; Table 1, Table 2).


Si-CSP9 regulates the integument and moulting process of larvae in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

Cheng D, Lu Y, Zeng L, Liang G, He X - Sci Rep (2015)

Diversity of ontological categories of differentially expressedgenes.(A): Ontological categories in biological process. (B): Ontologicalcategories in cell component. (C): Ontological categories in molecularfunction.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4363891&req=5

f5: Diversity of ontological categories of differentially expressedgenes.(A): Ontological categories in biological process. (B): Ontologicalcategories in cell component. (C): Ontological categories in molecularfunction.
Mentions: There were 375 differentially expressed genes (67 up-regulated genes and 308down-regulated genes) when Si-CSP9 was silenced in the SiRNA feedingtreatment. These genes fell into various ontological categories (Figure 5) and pathways (Table 1). Withregard to biological processes for the differentially expressed genes, themetabolic process exhibited the highest number of differentially expressedgenes, at 116 (Figure 5A, SupplementaryDataset S1). The genes in the metabolic process were significantlyenriched in the following: fatty acid biosynthesis; glycine, serine andthreonine metabolism; metabolic pathways; the hedgehog signalling pathway; andcarbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor (Table 1). As has been previously reported, fatty acidbiosynthesis, metabolic pathways, hedgehog signalling, and glutamineamido-N-donor carbon-nitrogen ligase activity have been demonstrated to have asignificant effect on the development of insect larvae2425262728. We performed blast and phylogenetic analyses ofthe most differentially expressed genes in the significantly enriched pathwaysand metabolic processes: namely, a protein kinase DC2 gene (PKA) involvedin the hedgehog signalling pathway, one fatty acid amide hydrolase gene(FAAH) involved in glutamine amido-N-donor carbon-nitrogen ligaseactivity, and 4 fatty acid synthase genes (FAT1, FAT2, FAT3, FAT4)involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic pathways (Figure 6A, 6B, and 6C; Table 1, Table 2).

Bottom Line: Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 4 pathways associated with larval development were significantly enriched.Significantly higher expression of these genes was found in 4th-instar larvae, and Pearson correlation analysis of the expression patterns revealed significant relationships among Si-CSP9, PKA, FAAH, and FAT1-4.Moreover, we confirmed that expression levels of Si-CSP9, FAAH, and FAT1-4 were significantly reduced and that the development of 3rd-instar larvae was halted with PKA silencing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic China.

ABSTRACT
Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been predicted to be involved in development; however, direct evidence for their involvement is lacking, and genetic basis is largely unknown. To determine the function of the chemosensory protein 9 (Si-CSP9) gene in Solenopsis invicta, we used RNA interference to silence Si-CSP9 in 3rd-instar larvae. The 3rd-instar larvae failed to shed their cuticle after being fed Si-CSP9-directed siRNA, and expression profiling of RNAi-treated and untreated control larvae showed that 375 genes were differentially expressed. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 4 pathways associated with larval development were significantly enriched. Blast analysis revealed that one fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene was up-regulated and 4 fatty acid synthase (FAT) genes and one protein kinase DC2 gene (PKA) were down-regulated in the enriched pathways. Significantly higher expression of these genes was found in 4th-instar larvae, and Pearson correlation analysis of the expression patterns revealed significant relationships among Si-CSP9, PKA, FAAH, and FAT1-4. Moreover, we confirmed that expression levels of Si-CSP9, FAAH, and FAT1-4 were significantly reduced and that the development of 3rd-instar larvae was halted with PKA silencing. These results suggest that Si-CSP9 and PKA may be involved in the network that contributes to development of 3rd-instar larvae.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus