Limits...
Comprehensive model of annual plankton succession based on the whole-plankton time series approach.

Romagnan JB, Legendre L, Guidi L, Jamet JL, Jamet D, Mousseau L, Pedrotti ML, Picheral M, Gorsky G, Sardet C, Stemmann L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Ecological succession provides a widely accepted description of seasonal changes in phytoplankton and mesozooplankton assemblages in the natural environment, but concurrent changes in smaller (i.e. microbes) and larger (i.e. macroplankton) organisms are not included in the model because plankton ranging from bacteria to jellies are seldom sampled and analyzed simultaneously.Here we studied, for the first time in the aquatic literature, the succession of marine plankton in the whole-plankton assemblage that spanned 5 orders of magnitude in size from microbes to macroplankton predators (not including fish or fish larvae, for which no consistent data were available).Based on the results provided by our novel whole-plankton assemblage approach, we propose a new comprehensive conceptual model of the annual plankton succession (i.e. whole plankton model) characterized by both stepwise stacking of four broad trophic communities from early spring through summer, which is a new concept, and progressive replacement of ecological plankton categories within the different trophic communities, as recognised traditionally.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sorbonne Universit├ęs, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7093 LOV, F-75005, Paris, France; CNRS, UMR 7093 LOV, F-75005, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
Ecological succession provides a widely accepted description of seasonal changes in phytoplankton and mesozooplankton assemblages in the natural environment, but concurrent changes in smaller (i.e. microbes) and larger (i.e. macroplankton) organisms are not included in the model because plankton ranging from bacteria to jellies are seldom sampled and analyzed simultaneously. Here we studied, for the first time in the aquatic literature, the succession of marine plankton in the whole-plankton assemblage that spanned 5 orders of magnitude in size from microbes to macroplankton predators (not including fish or fish larvae, for which no consistent data were available). Samples were collected in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Villefranche) weekly during 10 months. Simultaneously collected samples were analyzed by flow cytometry, inverse microscopy, FlowCam, and ZooScan. The whole-plankton assemblage underwent sharp reorganizations that corresponded to bottom-up events of vertical mixing in the water-column, and its development was top-down controlled by large gelatinous filter feeders and predators. Based on the results provided by our novel whole-plankton assemblage approach, we propose a new comprehensive conceptual model of the annual plankton succession (i.e. whole plankton model) characterized by both stepwise stacking of four broad trophic communities from early spring through summer, which is a new concept, and progressive replacement of ecological plankton categories within the different trophic communities, as recognised traditionally.

No MeSH data available.


Time series of PEC biovolumes at the sampling station from December 2010 to October 2011.The top coloured bars represent the periods identified from the clustering analyses based on physical and biological variables (coloured bars as in Fig. 3). The vertical dashed lines represent limits of clusters based on biological variables (i.e. PEC time series). Red dashes under the x-axes represent mixing events (see Fig. 3). Note the different scales on the y-axes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4363592&req=5

pone.0119219.g005: Time series of PEC biovolumes at the sampling station from December 2010 to October 2011.The top coloured bars represent the periods identified from the clustering analyses based on physical and biological variables (coloured bars as in Fig. 3). The vertical dashed lines represent limits of clusters based on biological variables (i.e. PEC time series). Red dashes under the x-axes represent mixing events (see Fig. 3). Note the different scales on the y-axes.

Mentions: Two long periods were identified in the biological (i.e. PECs) time series at the first clustering level (Fig. 4, clustering level B1). They corresponded chronologically to the winter/spring and summer seasons, with distinct PEC assemblages (Fig. 5). In this study, we refer to four trophic communities, i.e. the microbial community, primary producers, grazers, and predators (Table 2). The winter/spring community consisted of an initial assemblage of primary producers (i.e. pico-eukaryotes, silicoflagellates, Synechococcus and dinoflagellates, as shown by the IV analysis, S1 Table, to which diatoms could be associated as they showed their highest peak in spring, (Fig. 5h), and an initial assemblage of grazing and filter-feeding animals (i.e. copepods, gelatinous filter feeders and ciliates, S1 Table). The summer community was essentially composed of a second assemblage of primary producers (i.e. diatoms and Prochlorococcus, S1 Table), a second assemblage of primary consumers (i.e. small omnivorous zooplankton, decapods/euphausiids and pteropods, S1 Table), and an assemblage of predators (i.e. chaetognaths and gelatinous carnivores, S1 Table) that had been much less present in winter/spring (Fig. 5).


Comprehensive model of annual plankton succession based on the whole-plankton time series approach.

Romagnan JB, Legendre L, Guidi L, Jamet JL, Jamet D, Mousseau L, Pedrotti ML, Picheral M, Gorsky G, Sardet C, Stemmann L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Time series of PEC biovolumes at the sampling station from December 2010 to October 2011.The top coloured bars represent the periods identified from the clustering analyses based on physical and biological variables (coloured bars as in Fig. 3). The vertical dashed lines represent limits of clusters based on biological variables (i.e. PEC time series). Red dashes under the x-axes represent mixing events (see Fig. 3). Note the different scales on the y-axes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4363592&req=5

pone.0119219.g005: Time series of PEC biovolumes at the sampling station from December 2010 to October 2011.The top coloured bars represent the periods identified from the clustering analyses based on physical and biological variables (coloured bars as in Fig. 3). The vertical dashed lines represent limits of clusters based on biological variables (i.e. PEC time series). Red dashes under the x-axes represent mixing events (see Fig. 3). Note the different scales on the y-axes.
Mentions: Two long periods were identified in the biological (i.e. PECs) time series at the first clustering level (Fig. 4, clustering level B1). They corresponded chronologically to the winter/spring and summer seasons, with distinct PEC assemblages (Fig. 5). In this study, we refer to four trophic communities, i.e. the microbial community, primary producers, grazers, and predators (Table 2). The winter/spring community consisted of an initial assemblage of primary producers (i.e. pico-eukaryotes, silicoflagellates, Synechococcus and dinoflagellates, as shown by the IV analysis, S1 Table, to which diatoms could be associated as they showed their highest peak in spring, (Fig. 5h), and an initial assemblage of grazing and filter-feeding animals (i.e. copepods, gelatinous filter feeders and ciliates, S1 Table). The summer community was essentially composed of a second assemblage of primary producers (i.e. diatoms and Prochlorococcus, S1 Table), a second assemblage of primary consumers (i.e. small omnivorous zooplankton, decapods/euphausiids and pteropods, S1 Table), and an assemblage of predators (i.e. chaetognaths and gelatinous carnivores, S1 Table) that had been much less present in winter/spring (Fig. 5).

Bottom Line: Ecological succession provides a widely accepted description of seasonal changes in phytoplankton and mesozooplankton assemblages in the natural environment, but concurrent changes in smaller (i.e. microbes) and larger (i.e. macroplankton) organisms are not included in the model because plankton ranging from bacteria to jellies are seldom sampled and analyzed simultaneously.Here we studied, for the first time in the aquatic literature, the succession of marine plankton in the whole-plankton assemblage that spanned 5 orders of magnitude in size from microbes to macroplankton predators (not including fish or fish larvae, for which no consistent data were available).Based on the results provided by our novel whole-plankton assemblage approach, we propose a new comprehensive conceptual model of the annual plankton succession (i.e. whole plankton model) characterized by both stepwise stacking of four broad trophic communities from early spring through summer, which is a new concept, and progressive replacement of ecological plankton categories within the different trophic communities, as recognised traditionally.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sorbonne Universit├ęs, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7093 LOV, F-75005, Paris, France; CNRS, UMR 7093 LOV, F-75005, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
Ecological succession provides a widely accepted description of seasonal changes in phytoplankton and mesozooplankton assemblages in the natural environment, but concurrent changes in smaller (i.e. microbes) and larger (i.e. macroplankton) organisms are not included in the model because plankton ranging from bacteria to jellies are seldom sampled and analyzed simultaneously. Here we studied, for the first time in the aquatic literature, the succession of marine plankton in the whole-plankton assemblage that spanned 5 orders of magnitude in size from microbes to macroplankton predators (not including fish or fish larvae, for which no consistent data were available). Samples were collected in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Villefranche) weekly during 10 months. Simultaneously collected samples were analyzed by flow cytometry, inverse microscopy, FlowCam, and ZooScan. The whole-plankton assemblage underwent sharp reorganizations that corresponded to bottom-up events of vertical mixing in the water-column, and its development was top-down controlled by large gelatinous filter feeders and predators. Based on the results provided by our novel whole-plankton assemblage approach, we propose a new comprehensive conceptual model of the annual plankton succession (i.e. whole plankton model) characterized by both stepwise stacking of four broad trophic communities from early spring through summer, which is a new concept, and progressive replacement of ecological plankton categories within the different trophic communities, as recognised traditionally.

No MeSH data available.