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Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.

Peñasco S, Mela V, López-Moreno JA, Viveros MP, Marco EM - Neural Plast. (2015)

Bottom Line: Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress.During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals.Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Fisiología (Fisiología Animal II), Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

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Voluntary alcohol intake following one week of alcohol cessation (a) and following a second week of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress (b). Data are presented as mean ± S.E.M of the averaged alcohol intake (g/kg/2 h) during the first 2 h of alcohol exposure during the four days period of alcohol exposure (from pnd 57 to pnd 60, panel (a), and from pnd 67 to pnd 70, panel (b)). Rats were exposed to a single episode of early maternal deprivation (24 h on pnd 9, MD) or not deprived (control group, Co) and exposed to voluntary alcohol intake (20% v/v, in a two-bottle choice paradigm) during adolescence and following one week of alcohol cessation and after a second period of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint immobilization stress (30 min. per day under white light conditions) on the last three days of alcohol cessation. Data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05; (A) general effect of sex, (B) general effect of the neonatal condition. n = 9-10 cages per experimental group.
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fig3: Voluntary alcohol intake following one week of alcohol cessation (a) and following a second week of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress (b). Data are presented as mean ± S.E.M of the averaged alcohol intake (g/kg/2 h) during the first 2 h of alcohol exposure during the four days period of alcohol exposure (from pnd 57 to pnd 60, panel (a), and from pnd 67 to pnd 70, panel (b)). Rats were exposed to a single episode of early maternal deprivation (24 h on pnd 9, MD) or not deprived (control group, Co) and exposed to voluntary alcohol intake (20% v/v, in a two-bottle choice paradigm) during adolescence and following one week of alcohol cessation and after a second period of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint immobilization stress (30 min. per day under white light conditions) on the last three days of alcohol cessation. Data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05; (A) general effect of sex, (B) general effect of the neonatal condition. n = 9-10 cages per experimental group.

Mentions: Following one-week cessation, no significant differences were found on daily voluntary alcohol consumption (data not shown). However, a significant effect of the neonatal condition was found during the first 2 h of alcohol exposure (F(1,34) = 4.48; P < 0.05). Both male and female animals consumed more alcohol than their corresponding Co animals during the first 2 h of alcohol exposure (Figure 3(a)). Although not significant, a trend for higher levels of alcohol consumption was found for female animals when compared to males during these first 2 h of alcohol exposure (F(1,34) = 3.79; P = 0.06). No significant interaction between sex and neonatal condition was found.


Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.

Peñasco S, Mela V, López-Moreno JA, Viveros MP, Marco EM - Neural Plast. (2015)

Voluntary alcohol intake following one week of alcohol cessation (a) and following a second week of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress (b). Data are presented as mean ± S.E.M of the averaged alcohol intake (g/kg/2 h) during the first 2 h of alcohol exposure during the four days period of alcohol exposure (from pnd 57 to pnd 60, panel (a), and from pnd 67 to pnd 70, panel (b)). Rats were exposed to a single episode of early maternal deprivation (24 h on pnd 9, MD) or not deprived (control group, Co) and exposed to voluntary alcohol intake (20% v/v, in a two-bottle choice paradigm) during adolescence and following one week of alcohol cessation and after a second period of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint immobilization stress (30 min. per day under white light conditions) on the last three days of alcohol cessation. Data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05; (A) general effect of sex, (B) general effect of the neonatal condition. n = 9-10 cages per experimental group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4363574&req=5

fig3: Voluntary alcohol intake following one week of alcohol cessation (a) and following a second week of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress (b). Data are presented as mean ± S.E.M of the averaged alcohol intake (g/kg/2 h) during the first 2 h of alcohol exposure during the four days period of alcohol exposure (from pnd 57 to pnd 60, panel (a), and from pnd 67 to pnd 70, panel (b)). Rats were exposed to a single episode of early maternal deprivation (24 h on pnd 9, MD) or not deprived (control group, Co) and exposed to voluntary alcohol intake (20% v/v, in a two-bottle choice paradigm) during adolescence and following one week of alcohol cessation and after a second period of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint immobilization stress (30 min. per day under white light conditions) on the last three days of alcohol cessation. Data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05; (A) general effect of sex, (B) general effect of the neonatal condition. n = 9-10 cages per experimental group.
Mentions: Following one-week cessation, no significant differences were found on daily voluntary alcohol consumption (data not shown). However, a significant effect of the neonatal condition was found during the first 2 h of alcohol exposure (F(1,34) = 4.48; P < 0.05). Both male and female animals consumed more alcohol than their corresponding Co animals during the first 2 h of alcohol exposure (Figure 3(a)). Although not significant, a trend for higher levels of alcohol consumption was found for female animals when compared to males during these first 2 h of alcohol exposure (F(1,34) = 3.79; P = 0.06). No significant interaction between sex and neonatal condition was found.

Bottom Line: Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress.During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals.Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Fisiología (Fisiología Animal II), Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus