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PYCNOIB: biodiversity and biogeography of Iberian pycnogonids.

Soler-Membrives A, Munilla T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: A total of 17,762 pycnogonid records from 343 localities were analyzed and were found to contain 65 species, 21 genera and 12 families.In contrast, the family Nymphonidae has 7 species but is significantly less abundant (<1% of the total records) than Acheliidae.Further deep-water sampling is needed mainly on the Iberian Mediterranean side.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unitat de Zoologia (BABVE), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Biodiversity and biogeographic studies comparing the distribution patterns of benthic marine organisms across the Iberian Atlantic and Mediterranean waters are scarce. The Pycnogonida (sea spiders) are a clear example of both endemicity and diversity, and are considered a key taxon to study and monitor biogeographic and biodiversity patterns. This is the first review that compiles data about abundance and diversity of Iberian pycnogonids and examines their biogeographic patterns and bathymetric constraints using GIS tools. A total of 17,762 pycnogonid records from 343 localities were analyzed and were found to contain 65 species, 21 genera and 12 families. Achelia echinata and Ammothella longipes (family Acheliidae) were the most abundant comprising ~80% of the total records. The Acheliidae is also the most speciose in Iberian waters with 15 species. In contrast, the family Nymphonidae has 7 species but is significantly less abundant (<1% of the total records) than Acheliidae. Species accumulation curves indicate that further sampling would increase the number of Iberian species records. Current sampling effort suggests that the pycnogonid fauna of the Mediterranean region may be richer than that of the Atlantic. The Strait of Gibraltar and the Alboran Sea are recognized as species-rich areas that act as buffer zones between the Atlantic and Mediterranean boundaries. The deep waters surrounding the Iberian Peninsula are poorly surveyed, with only 15% of the sampling sites located below 1000 m. Further deep-water sampling is needed mainly on the Iberian Mediterranean side.

No MeSH data available.


Biogeographic relationships in pycnogonid Iberian species assemblage in 0.3° by 0.3° grid cells.Cluster analysis based on the Bray-Curtis faunal similarity among 0.3° by 0.3° grid cells that contain three or more species of Iberian pycnogonids (A), and geographic representation of the cluster distribution.
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pone.0120818.g006: Biogeographic relationships in pycnogonid Iberian species assemblage in 0.3° by 0.3° grid cells.Cluster analysis based on the Bray-Curtis faunal similarity among 0.3° by 0.3° grid cells that contain three or more species of Iberian pycnogonids (A), and geographic representation of the cluster distribution.

Mentions: The results of the Bray-Curtis similarity analysis based on the presence/absence data of all grid cells containing 3 or more species (Fig. 6A) were mapped onto their geographic locations (Fig. 6B). The clusters show six distinct groups separated into two main branches. The cluster 6 (red, open Atlantic, OAtl) is composed of all Atlantic deep-water grid cells, plus two Atlantic grid cells at depths around 200 m but which are located very far from the coast (see map Fig. 6B). The left branch is composed of all other groupings (1–5) plus grid cells not included in a group. This branch is composed of both Mediterranean and Atlantic stations regardless of depth, in agreement with the Mediterranean-Atlantic pattern. Cluster 1 (orange) is composed mostly of Portuguese stations (except from 58 and 70 grid cells on the Catalan coast). Clusters 2 (grey) and 3 (yellow) are exclusively Mediterranean stations, with the exception of one grid cell in Galician waters (n° 50). Cluster 3 agrees with the disrupted distribution of the Gibraltar region and Catalan coast. Cluster 4 (blue, SW) is formed by grid cells situated in the south-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, i.e. south of Portugal and Gibraltar, and cluster 5 (green, NW) is comprised of grid cells situated in the north and western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, that is north of Portugal, north Spain, and one Biscayan grid cell. Clusters 4 and 5 are consistent with the Atlantic pattern (pattern C, Fig. 5C), and together with cluster 6, are exclusive to the Atlantic.


PYCNOIB: biodiversity and biogeography of Iberian pycnogonids.

Soler-Membrives A, Munilla T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Biogeographic relationships in pycnogonid Iberian species assemblage in 0.3° by 0.3° grid cells.Cluster analysis based on the Bray-Curtis faunal similarity among 0.3° by 0.3° grid cells that contain three or more species of Iberian pycnogonids (A), and geographic representation of the cluster distribution.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4363526&req=5

pone.0120818.g006: Biogeographic relationships in pycnogonid Iberian species assemblage in 0.3° by 0.3° grid cells.Cluster analysis based on the Bray-Curtis faunal similarity among 0.3° by 0.3° grid cells that contain three or more species of Iberian pycnogonids (A), and geographic representation of the cluster distribution.
Mentions: The results of the Bray-Curtis similarity analysis based on the presence/absence data of all grid cells containing 3 or more species (Fig. 6A) were mapped onto their geographic locations (Fig. 6B). The clusters show six distinct groups separated into two main branches. The cluster 6 (red, open Atlantic, OAtl) is composed of all Atlantic deep-water grid cells, plus two Atlantic grid cells at depths around 200 m but which are located very far from the coast (see map Fig. 6B). The left branch is composed of all other groupings (1–5) plus grid cells not included in a group. This branch is composed of both Mediterranean and Atlantic stations regardless of depth, in agreement with the Mediterranean-Atlantic pattern. Cluster 1 (orange) is composed mostly of Portuguese stations (except from 58 and 70 grid cells on the Catalan coast). Clusters 2 (grey) and 3 (yellow) are exclusively Mediterranean stations, with the exception of one grid cell in Galician waters (n° 50). Cluster 3 agrees with the disrupted distribution of the Gibraltar region and Catalan coast. Cluster 4 (blue, SW) is formed by grid cells situated in the south-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, i.e. south of Portugal and Gibraltar, and cluster 5 (green, NW) is comprised of grid cells situated in the north and western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, that is north of Portugal, north Spain, and one Biscayan grid cell. Clusters 4 and 5 are consistent with the Atlantic pattern (pattern C, Fig. 5C), and together with cluster 6, are exclusive to the Atlantic.

Bottom Line: A total of 17,762 pycnogonid records from 343 localities were analyzed and were found to contain 65 species, 21 genera and 12 families.In contrast, the family Nymphonidae has 7 species but is significantly less abundant (<1% of the total records) than Acheliidae.Further deep-water sampling is needed mainly on the Iberian Mediterranean side.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unitat de Zoologia (BABVE), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Biodiversity and biogeographic studies comparing the distribution patterns of benthic marine organisms across the Iberian Atlantic and Mediterranean waters are scarce. The Pycnogonida (sea spiders) are a clear example of both endemicity and diversity, and are considered a key taxon to study and monitor biogeographic and biodiversity patterns. This is the first review that compiles data about abundance and diversity of Iberian pycnogonids and examines their biogeographic patterns and bathymetric constraints using GIS tools. A total of 17,762 pycnogonid records from 343 localities were analyzed and were found to contain 65 species, 21 genera and 12 families. Achelia echinata and Ammothella longipes (family Acheliidae) were the most abundant comprising ~80% of the total records. The Acheliidae is also the most speciose in Iberian waters with 15 species. In contrast, the family Nymphonidae has 7 species but is significantly less abundant (<1% of the total records) than Acheliidae. Species accumulation curves indicate that further sampling would increase the number of Iberian species records. Current sampling effort suggests that the pycnogonid fauna of the Mediterranean region may be richer than that of the Atlantic. The Strait of Gibraltar and the Alboran Sea are recognized as species-rich areas that act as buffer zones between the Atlantic and Mediterranean boundaries. The deep waters surrounding the Iberian Peninsula are poorly surveyed, with only 15% of the sampling sites located below 1000 m. Further deep-water sampling is needed mainly on the Iberian Mediterranean side.

No MeSH data available.