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Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain.

Giblin L, Darimont C, Leone P, McNamara LB, Blancher F, Berry D, Castañeda-Gutiérrez E, Lawlor PG - Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments.Mothers who gained the most weight during gestation (EM mothers) gave birth to offspring whose subcutaneous adipose tissue, at adolescence, appeared hyperactive compared to controls.This study concluded that mothers, who gained more than the recommended weight gain in mid and late gestation, put their offspring adipose tissue at risk of dysfunction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co.Cork, Ireland. Linda.Giblin@teagasc.ie.

ABSTRACT

Background: Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight.

Methods: Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standard gestation diet of 2.3 kg/day (30 MJ DE/day) from early to late gestation (day 25-110 gestation). E sows received 4.6 kg food/day in early gestation (day 25-50 gestation). M sows doubled their food intake in mid gestation (day 50-80 gestation). EM sows doubled their food intake during both early and mid gestation (day 25-80 gestation). L sows consumed 3.5 kg food/day in late gestation (day 80-110 gestation). Offspring body weight and food intake levels were measured from birth to adolescence. Markers of lipid metabolism, hypertrophy and inflammation were investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of adolescent offspring.

Results: The trajectory of gestational weight gain differed across treatments. However total gestational weight gain did not differ except for EM sows who were the heaviest and fattest mothers at parturition. Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from EM offspring differed significantly from controls, with elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic (CD36, ACACB and LPL), nutrient transporters (FABP4 and GLUT4), lipolysis (HSL and ATGL), adipocyte size (MEST) and inflammation (PAI-1) indicators. The subcutaneous adipose depot from L offspring exhibited elevated levels of CD36, ACACB, LPL, GLUT4 and FABP4 mRNA transcripts compared to control offspring.

Conclusions: Increasing gestational weight gain in early gestation had the greatest impact on offspring postnatal growth rate. Increasing maternal food allowance in late gestation appeared to shift the offspring adipocyte focus towards accumulation of fat. Mothers who gained the most weight during gestation (EM mothers) gave birth to offspring whose subcutaneous adipose tissue, at adolescence, appeared hyperactive compared to controls. This study concluded that mothers, who gained more than the recommended weight gain in mid and late gestation, put their offspring adipose tissue at risk of dysfunction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maternal weight gain during gestation. Control C Sows (n = 10) received 2.3 kg/day food from day 25 to 110 gestation, E sows (n = 15) received 4.6 kg/day food in early gestation (days 25 to 50), M sows (n = 13) received 4.6 kg/day in mid gestation (days 50 to 80), EM sows (n = 12) received 4.6 kg/day in early and mid gestation (days 25 to 80) and L sows (n = 11) received 3.5 kg/day from days 80 to 110 of gestation. Colour coding; blue depicts weight gain from service to day 25 gestation, yellow depicts weight gain from day 25 to day 50 gestation, green depicts weight gain from day 50 to day 80 gestation and pink depicts weight gain from day 80 to day 110 gestation. Values represent Duncan’s means. Different superscripts indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) between treatments within the same time interval.
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Fig1: Maternal weight gain during gestation. Control C Sows (n = 10) received 2.3 kg/day food from day 25 to 110 gestation, E sows (n = 15) received 4.6 kg/day food in early gestation (days 25 to 50), M sows (n = 13) received 4.6 kg/day in mid gestation (days 50 to 80), EM sows (n = 12) received 4.6 kg/day in early and mid gestation (days 25 to 80) and L sows (n = 11) received 3.5 kg/day from days 80 to 110 of gestation. Colour coding; blue depicts weight gain from service to day 25 gestation, yellow depicts weight gain from day 25 to day 50 gestation, green depicts weight gain from day 50 to day 80 gestation and pink depicts weight gain from day 80 to day 110 gestation. Values represent Duncan’s means. Different superscripts indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) between treatments within the same time interval.

Mentions: All sows had similar body weights at service (189.2 kg, SEM 1.1, P > 0.05). The effect of treatment on sow body weight during gestation did not differ by parity. At the end of gestation (day 110), only treatment EM sows were heavier than treatment C sows (275.8 kg versus 255.4 kg, SEM 5.09, P < 0.05). However, timing of gestational weight gain differed across treatments (Figure 1). From day 25 to 50 gestation, E and EM sows gained significantly more weight than treatment C, M and L sows (P < 0.05). From day 50 to 80 gestation, M sows gained significantly more weight than all other treatments (P < 0.05). In contrast, within this time period, E sows gained significantly less weight than all treatments (P < 0.05). From day 80 to 110 gestation, L sows gained significantly more weight than all other treatments (P < 0.05). Within this time period, C sows had similar weight gains to E and EM sows (P > 0.05) but significantly greater weight gains than M sows (P < 0.05). Treatment M had similar weight gains to EM sows (P > 0.05) (Figure 1).Figure 1


Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain.

Giblin L, Darimont C, Leone P, McNamara LB, Blancher F, Berry D, Castañeda-Gutiérrez E, Lawlor PG - Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. (2015)

Maternal weight gain during gestation. Control C Sows (n = 10) received 2.3 kg/day food from day 25 to 110 gestation, E sows (n = 15) received 4.6 kg/day food in early gestation (days 25 to 50), M sows (n = 13) received 4.6 kg/day in mid gestation (days 50 to 80), EM sows (n = 12) received 4.6 kg/day in early and mid gestation (days 25 to 80) and L sows (n = 11) received 3.5 kg/day from days 80 to 110 of gestation. Colour coding; blue depicts weight gain from service to day 25 gestation, yellow depicts weight gain from day 25 to day 50 gestation, green depicts weight gain from day 50 to day 80 gestation and pink depicts weight gain from day 80 to day 110 gestation. Values represent Duncan’s means. Different superscripts indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) between treatments within the same time interval.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4363193&req=5

Fig1: Maternal weight gain during gestation. Control C Sows (n = 10) received 2.3 kg/day food from day 25 to 110 gestation, E sows (n = 15) received 4.6 kg/day food in early gestation (days 25 to 50), M sows (n = 13) received 4.6 kg/day in mid gestation (days 50 to 80), EM sows (n = 12) received 4.6 kg/day in early and mid gestation (days 25 to 80) and L sows (n = 11) received 3.5 kg/day from days 80 to 110 of gestation. Colour coding; blue depicts weight gain from service to day 25 gestation, yellow depicts weight gain from day 25 to day 50 gestation, green depicts weight gain from day 50 to day 80 gestation and pink depicts weight gain from day 80 to day 110 gestation. Values represent Duncan’s means. Different superscripts indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) between treatments within the same time interval.
Mentions: All sows had similar body weights at service (189.2 kg, SEM 1.1, P > 0.05). The effect of treatment on sow body weight during gestation did not differ by parity. At the end of gestation (day 110), only treatment EM sows were heavier than treatment C sows (275.8 kg versus 255.4 kg, SEM 5.09, P < 0.05). However, timing of gestational weight gain differed across treatments (Figure 1). From day 25 to 50 gestation, E and EM sows gained significantly more weight than treatment C, M and L sows (P < 0.05). From day 50 to 80 gestation, M sows gained significantly more weight than all other treatments (P < 0.05). In contrast, within this time period, E sows gained significantly less weight than all treatments (P < 0.05). From day 80 to 110 gestation, L sows gained significantly more weight than all other treatments (P < 0.05). Within this time period, C sows had similar weight gains to E and EM sows (P > 0.05) but significantly greater weight gains than M sows (P < 0.05). Treatment M had similar weight gains to EM sows (P > 0.05) (Figure 1).Figure 1

Bottom Line: Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments.Mothers who gained the most weight during gestation (EM mothers) gave birth to offspring whose subcutaneous adipose tissue, at adolescence, appeared hyperactive compared to controls.This study concluded that mothers, who gained more than the recommended weight gain in mid and late gestation, put their offspring adipose tissue at risk of dysfunction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co.Cork, Ireland. Linda.Giblin@teagasc.ie.

ABSTRACT

Background: Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight.

Methods: Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standard gestation diet of 2.3 kg/day (30 MJ DE/day) from early to late gestation (day 25-110 gestation). E sows received 4.6 kg food/day in early gestation (day 25-50 gestation). M sows doubled their food intake in mid gestation (day 50-80 gestation). EM sows doubled their food intake during both early and mid gestation (day 25-80 gestation). L sows consumed 3.5 kg food/day in late gestation (day 80-110 gestation). Offspring body weight and food intake levels were measured from birth to adolescence. Markers of lipid metabolism, hypertrophy and inflammation were investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of adolescent offspring.

Results: The trajectory of gestational weight gain differed across treatments. However total gestational weight gain did not differ except for EM sows who were the heaviest and fattest mothers at parturition. Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from EM offspring differed significantly from controls, with elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic (CD36, ACACB and LPL), nutrient transporters (FABP4 and GLUT4), lipolysis (HSL and ATGL), adipocyte size (MEST) and inflammation (PAI-1) indicators. The subcutaneous adipose depot from L offspring exhibited elevated levels of CD36, ACACB, LPL, GLUT4 and FABP4 mRNA transcripts compared to control offspring.

Conclusions: Increasing gestational weight gain in early gestation had the greatest impact on offspring postnatal growth rate. Increasing maternal food allowance in late gestation appeared to shift the offspring adipocyte focus towards accumulation of fat. Mothers who gained the most weight during gestation (EM mothers) gave birth to offspring whose subcutaneous adipose tissue, at adolescence, appeared hyperactive compared to controls. This study concluded that mothers, who gained more than the recommended weight gain in mid and late gestation, put their offspring adipose tissue at risk of dysfunction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus